LIVER - Фонд оценочных средств по учебной дисциплине деловой иностранный язык (английский)

Фонд оценочных средств по учебной дисциплине деловой иностранный язык (английский)


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LIVER


The liver is the largest gland of the body, weighing 1.5 kg in men and somewhat less in women. It is a soft plastic organ. It occupies chiefly the right hypochondriac and epigastric regions directly beneath the diaphragm. There are two principal lobes, the right and the left. The right lobe consists of the right lobe proper and the small quadrate and the caudate lobes on the inferior surface.

The line of demarcation between the right and left lobes is indicated in the superior surface by the falciform ligament, which passes from the liver to the diaphragm and the anterior abdominal wall. The ligament is a remnant of the anterior mesentery and conveys on its free border, a fibrous cord, the occluded umbilical vein, now the round ligament.

The surface of the liver is covered with peritoneum with the exception of a small area on its posterior surface, which is attached directly to the diaphragm. Beneath the peritoneum is a dense connective tissue layer called the capsule of Glisson, which covers the entire surface of the organ.

Microscopic structure. The cells of the liver are arranged in architectural units, called lobules. These are elongated polygonal structures, having five, six or seven sides. Running lengthwise through the center of the lobule is the central or intralobular vein. Encircling the periphery of the lobule are the branches of the portal vein, called interlobular veins, interlobular bile ducts and branches of the hepatic artery. The interlobular veins break up into sinusoids, which enter the lobule at the periphery.

The liver cells are arranged in cords, which radiate from the central vein to the periphery of the lobule. Between the cords lie the liver sinusoids. Each liver cell cord consists of two adjacent rows of hepatic cells between which runs a thin bile capillary, which passes to the periphery of the lobule to join the interlobular bile ducts.

The sinusoids are irregular blood channels formed by a layer of flat cells and histiocytes. The histiocytes of the liver are called Kupffer's cells. The sinusoids lead in a radial manner toward the middle of the lobule and empty into the central vein. The smallest branches of the hepatic artery enter the sinusoids at the periphery of the lobule.

Summary of circulation. Blood is brought to the liver from two sources; from the digestive tract and spleen by the portal vein and from the aorta through the hepatic artery.

The portal vein on entering the liver divides into branches which into relation to the circumference of the lobule. These branches in turn give off interlobular veins, which run between the lobules. These give rise to the sinusoids, which run between the cords of hepatic cells to enter the central veins. Central veins of several lobules join to form the sublobular veins, which in turn unite to form the hepatic veins. The hepatic veins, usually two or three in number, empty into life inferior vena cava.

The hepatic artery is distributed chiefly to the interlobular connective tissue and its contained structures, Its finest branches empty into the sinusoids at the circumference of the lobule. The hepatic artery contributes about one fourth of the total blood supply of the liver. However, the liver is dependent upon this fraction for its oxygen supply.

Зав. кафедрой иностранных языков, доцент Знаменская С.В.

Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

«Ставропольский государственный медицинский университет»

Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации
Кафедра иностранных языков
Тексты к билету № 3

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and related or accessory organs.

The alimentary canal is formed by the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum.

The accessory structures are the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, hard and soft palates, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.

The alimentary tract from esophagus to rectum conforms to a definite structural plan. The layers from within outward are mucous, submucous, muscular and serous. In the esophagus the serous layer is lacking and the outer coat is fibrous in nature.

The organs of the digestive system contained in the abdomen are covered with the serous coat — the peritoneum. The peritoneum has two layers, the visceral and parietal.

The mouth is the first division of the alimentary tract. Important structures of the mouth are the tongue, which contains the end organ for taste, and the teeth, which divide and mix the food. There are two sets of teeth, first the deciduous or milk teeth and later the permanent teeth.
KIDNEYS

Kidneys are a pair of glands situated close to the spine in the upper part of the abdomen. They are on a level with the last dorsal and upper two lumbar vertebrae, and each is, to a great extent, covered behind by the twelfth rib of its own side. They are kept in this position by a quantity of fat and loose connective tissue, in which they are embedded, by the large vessels, which supply them with blood, by the peritoneal membrane stretched over their front surface, and largely by the pressure of the other abdominal organs against them.

Structure. In size each is about 4 inches long, 2½ inches wide, l½ inches thick, and weighs over 4 ounces. The size, however, varies a good deal. The left kidney is slightly longer and narrower, and lays a trifle higher in the abdomen than the right.

The kidney in adult human beings presents a smooth exterior, though in early life, as in many animals, it is divided up into distinct lobes, corresponding to the pyramids found in the interior. Enveloping it is a tough fibrous coat, which, in the healthy state, is bound to the kidney only by loose fibrous tissues and by a few blood vessels that pass between it and the kidney.

The outer margin of the kidney is convex; the inner is concave, presenting a deep depression, known as the hi1us, where the vessels enter its substance. At the hilus the renal vein lies in front of the renal artery, the former joining the inferior vena cava, and the latter springing from the aorta almost at a right angle. Here, too, the ureter, which conveys urine down to the bladder, is attached. The ureter is spread out into an expanded, funnel-like end, known as the pelvis, to which the capsule of the kidney is firmly attached and which further divides into little funnels known as the calices.

On splitting open a kidney, one finds it to consist of two distinct parts: a layer on the surface, about 1/6 inch thick, known as the cortex, and a part towards the hilum, known as the medulla. The latter consists of pyramids, arranged side by side, with their base on the cortex and their apex projecting into the calices of the pelvis. The apex of each pyramid, of which there are about 15—20 in all, is studded with minute holes, which are the openings of the microscopic uriniferous tubes.

Each pyramid is in effect taken together with the portion of the cortex lying along its base, an independent little kidney. About a score of small tubes open on the surface of each pyramid and these, if traced up into its substance, divide again and again so as to form bundles of tubes, known as medullary rays, passing up towards the cortex. If one of these be traced still farther back, it is found, after a very tortuous course, to end in a small rounded body, the Malpighian corpuscle or glomerulus.

If the blood vessels now be traced through the kidney, their course is found to be as follows. The renal artery splits up into branches, which form arches at the line of junction of cortex and medulla, and from these again spring vessels that run up through the cortex, giving off small branches in every direction.

Each of these at last ends in a little tuft of capillaries enclosed in a capsule (Bowman's), that forms the end of the uriniferous tube above described, and capillaries with capsule are known as a glomerulus. The blood, after circulating in the glomerulus, emerges by a small vessel, which again splits up into capillaries on the walls of the uriniferous tubes. From these it is collected finally into the renal veins and by them leaves the kidney.

By means of the double circulation, first through the glomerulus and then around the tube a large amount of fluid is removed from the blood in the glomerulus, and then the concentrated blood passes on to the uriniferous tube for removal of parts of its solid contents. Other straight arteries come off from the arches above mentioned and supply the medulla direct, the blood from these passing through another set of capillaries and also finally into the renal veins.


Зав. кафедрой иностранных языков, доцент Знаменская С.В.
Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

«Ставропольский государственный медицинский университет»

Министерства здравоохранения и социального развития Российской Федерации
Кафедра иностранных языков
Тексты к билету № 4

LUNGS

The lungs form a pair of organs situated in the chest, and discharge, perhaps, the most important function of vital activity, viz., respiration.

The air, which enters through the nose and passes down the throat, larynx, and windpipe in succession, reaches the lungs by the right and left bronchial tubes, into which the windpipe divides within the chest, at the level of the second rib. The texture of the lungs is highly elastic, so that when the chest is opened each lung collapses to about one-third of its natural bulk.

Each lung is roughly conical in shape, with an apex projecting into the neck, and a base resting upon the diaphragm. The rounded outer surface of each is in contact with the ribs of its own side, while the heart, lying between the lungs, hollows out the inner surface of each to some extent. There is an anterior border, along which the outer and inner surfaces meet, and the borders of the two lungs touch one another for a short distance behind the middle of the breastbone.
BLOOD VESSELS

The tubes leading from the heart are arteries. Those have rather thick elastic walls made up of layers of smooth muscle and of connective tissue. They branch into smaller arteries or arterioles, which have much thinner walls. The inner coat of all blood vessels is a smooth layer, called the endothelium. It is continuous with the endocardium of the heart and is the only layer of cells on the walls of the capillaries.

When the wave of blood forced out of the heart by the contraction of the ventricle passes through the artery, it produces a distinct beat called the pulse, due to the impact of the blood against the elastic walls of the artery.

The pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries is termed blood pressure. It depends not only upon the force of the heartbeat but also upon the elasticity of the walls of the arteries, and the resistance offered by capillaries to the escape of blood into the veins. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury. It varies with age. From 100 to 130 millimeters is considered normal in the young adult. Physical exertion and emotional stress increase blood pressure while inactivity, fatigue, and undernutrition tend to lower it. Persistently high or low pressure may be abnormal; hence blood pressure is usually taken during the physical examination.

The thin endothelial walls of the capillary network perm it a constant interchange of materials. The cells of the tissues are thus bathed constantly by an intercellular fluid, called "tissue fluid," which is supplied with materials from the blood stream. Waste from the cells passes into this fluid and part of it enters the blood stream through the capillary walls.

The rate of flow of the blood in the capillary network is very slow. Each capillary is approximately 0.75 of a millimeter long, but it requires almost two seconds for the blood to pass through. The complete circuit of the blood through both pulmonary and systemic circulation requires approximately thirty seconds. The retardation of blood in the capillaries facilitates the interchange of materials.

Capillary tubes open and close in response to nerve stimulation and to chemical substances brought to them through the blood. Not all of them are open simultaneously. It has been estimated that more than half of the blood of the body would be contained in the capillaries if they were all open at once. This is in fact what occurs during traumatic shock. The amount of blood emptying into the heart in this case may be so reduced as to cause the failure of circulation.

As the blood passes on from the capillaries, it enters the small veins. These also have the power of contracting and relaxing but their alls are impermeable, due to an added layer of connective tissue. The prompt return of the blood is important because the proper filling the heart with blood is an important factor in determining the force its beat.

There are several factors that aid in returning the blood to the heart. The pressure due to the oncoming stream from arteries and capillaries serves to push it forward. Valves, which open toward the heart are located along the veins with the exception of the large veins of the trunk. Bodily movements produce pressure upon the soft tubes of the veins and this forces the blood onward cause the action of the valves permits escape only in the direction of the heart.

The chest, in breathing, acts as a bellows, which constantly changes the pressure in the thoracic cavity. A decrease in pressure allows the blood from the veins of the body to flow into the large trunk veins. With each inspiration the pressure is increased and the blood is forced toward the heart. Deep breathing thus serves to stimulate the flow of venous blood back to the heart.

The tissue fluid does not return directly into the blood stream but passes into a closed system of tubes known as the lymphatics. The fluid, which enters the lymphatics is termed "lymph". After it t is collected from various parts of the body it is poured into the venous blood stream through two large ducts at points near the heart. Movement of lymph through the lymphatics is similar to the flow of venous blood toward the heart, being influenced by the action of valves, the pressure of bodily movements, and changes in thoracic pressure. The swelling that occurs in connection with sprains or bruises is due to the accumulation of more liquid in intercellular spaces than can be drained off readily by the lymphatics.

Зав. кафедрой иностранных языков, доцент Знаменская С.В.

Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

«Ставропольский государственный медицинский университет»

Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации
Кафедра иностранных языков
Тексты к билету № 5
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and related or accessory organs.

The alimentary canal is formed by the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum.

The accessory structures are the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, hard and soft palates, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.

The alimentary tract from esophagus to rectum conforms to a definite structural plan. The layers from within outward are mucous, submucous, muscular and serous. In the esophagus the serous layer is lacking and the outer coat is fibrous in nature.

The organs of the digestive system contained in the abdomen are covered with the serous coat — the peritoneum. The peritoneum has two layers, the visceral and parietal.

The mouth is the first division of the alimentary tract. Important structures of the mouth are the tongue, which contains the end organ for taste, and the teeth, which divide and mix the food. There are two sets of teeth, first the deciduous or milk teeth and later the permanent teeth.

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