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Контрольная работа по дисциплине «Английский язык»


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Вариант 18

  1. Прочитайте текст.

  2. Выпишете 10 терминов и переведите их

  3. Составьте 5 вопросов (разного типа) к тексту.

  4. Переведите текст.

  5. Подготовьтесь к беседе по тексту.


Text 18: MODERN THEODOLITES

In today's theodolites, the reading out of the horizontal and vertical circles is usually done electronically. The readout is done by a rotary encoder, which can be absolute, e.g. using Gray codes, or incremental, using equidistant light and dark radial bands. In the latter case the circles spin rapidly, reducing angle measurement to electronic measurement of time differences. Additionally, lately computer-controlled display sensors have been added to the focal plane of the telescope allowing both auto-targeting and the automated measurement of residual target offset. All this is implemented in embedded software.

Also, many modern theodolites, costing up to $10,000 apiece, are equipped with integrated electro-optical distance measuring devices, generally infrared based, allowing the measurement in one go of complete three-dimensional vectors which can then be transformed to a pre-existing co-ordinate system in the area by means of a sufficient number of control points. This technique is called a resection solution or free station position surveying and is widely used in mapping surveying. The instruments, "intelligent" theodolites called self-registering tacheometers or "total stations", perform the necessary operations, saving data into internal registering units, or into external data storage devices. Typically, ruggedized laptops are used as data collectors for this purpose.

Вариант 19

  1. Прочитайте текст.

  2. Выпишете 10 терминов и переведите их

  3. Составьте 5 вопросов (разного типа) к тексту.

  4. Переведите текст.

  5. Подготовьтесь к беседе по тексту.


Text 19: FOUNDATIONS OF LOW-RISE BUILDINGS

All foundations must transmit the building loads to a stable stratum of earth. There are two criteria for stability: first, the soil under the foundations should be able to receive the imposed load without more than about 2.5 centimetres of settlement and, second, the settlement should be uniform under the entire building. It is also important that the bottom of the foundation be below the maximum winter frost level. Wet soil expands as it freezes, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles can move the building up and down, leading to possible displacement and damage. Maximum frost depth varies with climate and topography. It can be as deep as 1.5 metres in cold continental climates and is zero in tropical and some subtropical areas.

The foundation systems for low-rise residential buildings are suitable for their light loads; nearly all are supported on spread footings, which are of two types — continuous footings that support walls and isolated pad footings that support concentrated loads. The footings themselves are usually made of concrete poured directly on undisturbed soil to a minimum depth of about 30 centimetres.

Foundation walls can be built of reinforced concrete or masonry, particularly concrete block. Concrete blocks are of a standard size larger than bricks and are hollow, forming a grid of vertical planes. They are the least expensive form of masonry — using cheap but strong material — and their large size economizes on the labour required to lay them. Their appearance and weathering properties are inferior to those of fired masonry, but they are satisfactory for foundation walls, in some places timber foundation walls and spread footings are used. Excavation for foundations is the most highly mechanized operation in this building type; it is done almost entirely with bulldozers and backhoes.


Вариант 20

  1. Прочитайте текст.

  2. Выпишете 10 терминов и переведите их

  3. Составьте 5 вопросов (разного типа) к тексту.

  4. Переведите текст.

  5. Подготовьтесь к беседе по тексту.


Text 20: PIPE PILES

Pipe piles are a type of steel driven pile foundation and are a good candidate for battered piles. Pipe piles can be driven either open end or closed end. When driven open end, soil is allowed to enter the bottom of the pipe or tube. If an empty pipe is required, a jet of water or an auger can be used to remove the soil inside following driving. Closed end pipe piles are constructed by covering the bottom of the pile with a steel plate or cast steel shoe. In some cases, pipe piles are filled with concrete to provide additional moment capacity or corrosion resistance.

In the United Kingdom, this is not generally done in order to reduce the cost. In these cases, corrosion protection is provided by allowing for a sacrificial thickness of steel or by adopting a higher grade of steel. If a concrete filled pipe pile is corroded, most of the load carrying capacity of the pile will remain intact due to the concrete, while it will be lost in an empty pipe pile.

The structural capacity of pipe piles is primarily calculated based on steel strength and concrete strength (if filled). The thickness of the steel considered for determining capacity is typically reduced by 1/16 in. compared to the actual pipe to account for corrosion. Steel pipe piles can either be new steel manufactured specifically for the piling industry or reclaimed steel tubular casing previously used for other purposes such as oil and gas exploration.

Вариант 21

  1. Прочитайте текст.

  2. Выпишете 10 терминов и переведите их

  3. Составьте 5 вопросов (разного типа) к тексту.

  4. Переведите текст.

  5. Подготовьтесь к беседе по тексту.


Text 21: MASONRY WALLS

Structural masonry walls are primarily used in multistoreyed buildings, where they offer greater load-bearing capacity and fire resistance. Brick and concrete block are the major materials, brick being favoured for exterior surfaces because of its appearance and durability. Solid brick walls are rarely used due to the higher labour and material costs; composite walls of brick and block or block alone are common.

Cavity walls are used in colder climates; in these, two with vertical layers of masonry are built on either side of a layer of rigid insulation. The wythes are joined together by steel reinforcement that runs through the insulation and is laid in the horizontal masonry joints at intervals. Cavity walls have a heat-flow rate that is 50 percent of that of a solid wall. Timber floor and roof construction, similar to balloon framing, is used with masonry construction; and there is also some use of precast prestressed hollow concrete panels which are fireproof and can span up to nine metres.

Вариант 22

  1. Прочитайте текст.

  2. Выпишете 10 терминов и переведите их

  3. Составьте 5 вопросов (разного типа) к тексту.

  4. Переведите текст.

  5. Подготовьтесь к беседе по тексту.


Text 22:VENEER MASONRY

A masonry veneer wall consists of masonry units, usually clay-based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall usually constructed of wood or masonry. In this context the brick masonry is primarily decorative, not structural.

The brick veneer is generally connected to the structural wall by brickties (metal strips that are attached to the structural wall, as well as the mortar joints of the brick veneer). There is typically an air gap between the brick veneer and the structural wall. As clay-based brick is usually not completely waterproof, the structural wall will often have a water-resistant surface (usually tar paper) and weep holes can be left at the base of the brick veneer to drain moisture that accumulates inside the air gap. Concrete blocks, real and cultured stones, and veneer adobe are sometimes used in a very similar veneer fashion.

Most insulated buildings that utilize concrete block, brick, adobe, stone, veneers or some combination thereof feature interior insulation in the form of fiberglass batts between wooden wall studs or in the form of rigid insulation boards covered with plaster or dry wall. In most climates this insulation is much more effective on the exterior of the wall, allowing the building interior to take advantage of the aforementioned thermal mass of the masonry. This technique does, however, require some sort of weather-resistant exterior surface over the insulation and, consequently, is generally more expensive.

Вариант 23

  1. Прочитайте текст.

  2. Выпишете 10 терминов и переведите их

  3. Составьте 5 вопросов (разного типа) к тексту.

  4. Переведите текст.

  5. Подготовьтесь к беседе по тексту.

Text 23: INTERIOR FINISHES OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

Interior finishes and space-division systems define the living spaces within residential buildings with a range of both natural and synthetic materials. The most widely used wall finish is gypsum board, a prefabricated form of traditional wet plaster. Wet gypsum plaster is cast between paper facings to form large panels that are nailed to light timber or metal frameworks. The joints between the panels are filled with a hard-setting resin compound, giving a smooth seamless surface that has considerable fire resistance. Gypsum board forms the substrate to which a number of other materials, including thin wood-veneered plywood and vinyl fabrics, can be applied with adhesives. In wet areas such as kitchens and bathrooms, water-resistant gypsum board is used, sometimes with the addition of adhesive-applied ceramic tile.

Doors in residential buildings are usually of the hollow, core type, with thin veneers of wood glued over a honey-comb paper core and solid wood edge strips: door frames are typically made of machined timber shapes. Plastic laminates bonded to particleboard are extensively used for built-in cabinets and countertops. The most common floor finish is carpeting, most of which is now made of synthetic fibres, displacing the traditional wool and cotton. It can be easily maintained and its soft visual and tactile texture as well as its sound-absorbing qualities make it attractive for residential use. Hardwoods — primarily oak, birch, and maple — are also used for floors, both in the traditional narrow planks nailed to plywood decks and as prefabricated parquet elements which are applied with adhesives. In wet or hard-use areas vinyl-composition tiles or ceramic tiles are used.


Вариант 24

  1. Прочитайте текст.

  2. Выпишете 10 терминов и переведите их

  3. Составьте 5 вопросов (разного типа) к тексту.

  4. Переведите текст.

  5. Подготовьтесь к беседе по тексту.


Text 24: PLASTER SLABS

For partitions and ceilings, plaster slabs are now in general use when work has to be finished quickly. For ceilings they require simply to be nailed to the joists, the joints being made with plaster, and the whole finished with a thin setting coat. In some cases, with fireproof floors, for instance, the slabs are hung up with wire hangers so as to allow a space of several inches between the soffit of the concrete floor and the ceiling. For partitions the slabs frequently have the edges tongued and grooved to form a better connection; often, too, they are holed through vertically, so that, when grouted in with semi-fluid plaster, the whole partition is bound together, as it were, with plaster dowels. Where very great strength is required the work may be reinforced by small iron rods through the slabs. This forms a very strong and rigid partition which is at the same time fire-resisting and of lightweight, and when finished measures only from two to four inches (102 mm) thick.

The slabs may be obtained either with a keyed surface, which requires finishing with a setting coat when the partition or ceiling is in position, or a smooth finished face, which may be papered or painted immediately the joints have been carefully made. Partitions are also formed with one or other of the forms of metal lathing fixed to iron uprights and plastered on both sides. So strong is the result that partitions of this class only two or three inches (76 mm) thick were used for temporary cells for prisoners at Newgate Gaol during the rebuilding of the new sessions house in the Old Bailey in London.

Список источников:

  1. Рогова.Г.В., Рожкова Ф.М. Английский язык за два года. 6-е изд., Москва, «Просвещение», 1998, 384с.

  2. Программа, методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов-заочников средних специальных учебных заведений. Составители: Кучин Н.Д., Новицкая Т.М., 3-е изд., Москва, «Высшая школа», 2002, 120 с.

  3. Авторские разработки по английскому языку для студентов средних специальных учебных заведений.

  4. Гарагуля С.И., Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей, Learning Building Construction in English, Москва, «Высшая школа», 2011.


Интернет-ресурсы:

http// www. engmaster. ru/ - сайт по изучению английского языка

Контрольную работу составил (а) преподаватель первой квалификационной

(должность, квалификационная категория)

категории

________________ Макарова О.С.

(подпись) (Фамилия И.О.)
Контрольная работа обсуждена на заседании ПЦК цикла социально- экономических дисциплин
протокол № ______от «___» _____________20__г.
Председатель ПЦК ________________ Сероштанова С.В.

(подпись) (Фамилия И.О.)
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