Construction work

Construction work


НазваниеConstruction work
страница1/8
ТипУчебно-методическое пособие
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8


ОГБОУ СПО

«РЯЗАНСКИЙ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ»

CONSTRUCTION WORK
Учебно-методическое пособие по чтению текстов на английском языке для студентов средних профессиональных образовательных учреждений

(строительные специальности)

Категория:

«Среднее профессиональное образование»

Номинация:

«Учебное пособие»
Разработчики:

Бобро Т.А., Кузнецова О.В., Липунцова М.В., Соболева Т.И. – преподаватели ОГБОУ СПО РСК
Рязань, 2014г.
CONTENTS
Предисловие…………………………………………………………………….3

Unit 1. Construction in People’s Life……………………………………………5

Unit 2. Site Works……………………………………………………………...15

Unit 3. Construction Materials…………………………………………………25

Unit 4. Construction Machines……………………………………………43

Unit 5. Substructure…………………………………………………………….53

Unit 6. Superstructure…………………………………………………………..59

Unit 7. Internal Construction…………………………………………………...79

Unit 8. Domestic Services……………………………………………………...87

Unit 9. Management and Marketing in Construction…………………………..96

Библиографический список…………………………………………………105


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Данное учебно-методическое пособие было создано коллективом преподавателей предметно-цикловой комиссии общих гуманитарных и социально-экономических дисциплин ОГБОУ СПО «Рязанский строительный колледж» (Бобро Т.А., Кузнецова О.В., Липунцова М.В., Соболева Т.И. – под общей редакцией к.п.н. Бобро Т.А.). Оно предназначено для студентов строительных специальностей средних профессиональных образовательных учреждений и составлено в соответствии с требованиями Федеральных государственных образовательных стандартов среднего профессионального образования.

Основной целью пособия является подготовка студентов к чтению, пониманию аутентичных текстов по специальности. В основе пособия лежат как методически обработанные тексты из англоязычных источников, так и тексты, являющиеся творческой работой авторов.

Учебно-методическое пособие носит инновационный характер – в нем впервые предусмотрено систематическое изучение процесса строительства. Это позволяет использовать предложенные материалы в рамках различных технологий обучения – от включения отдельных текстов в традиционно выделяемые темы до самостоятельного использования в рамках модульного обучения на продвинутом этапе обучения.

Все материалы в пособии представлены в форме девяти разделов (units), каждый из которых тематически представляет собой описание процесса строительства от подготовки почвы до отделочных работ. Тематика текстов охватывает историю развития строительного дела, современные строительные технологии, а также проблемы менеджмента и маркетинга в строительстве.

Каждый раздел имеет определенную структуру: лексическая часть включает основной текст, словарь для активного усвоения лексики текста, упражнения различного типа. При составлении текстов и упражнений уделено большое внимание повторяемости лексических и грамматических явлений и использован принцип постепенного нарастания трудностей, что позволяет лучше усваивать материал. Пособие также включает задания, ориентированные на развитие навыков монологической речи и письменного выражения мысли. Задания сформулированы так, что обучающиеся могут работать по нему самостоятельно, включая дистанционную (заочную) форму обучения.

Авторы предлагаемого учебно-методического пособия надеются, что их попытка представить современный учебно-методический материал окажется своевременной и полезной и будет способствовать достижению нового качества подготовки специалистов среднего звена на уровне современных квалификационных требований.

UNIT 1. CONSTRUCTION IN PEOPLE’S LIFE
TEXT 1. Why Do People Build?

Part 1
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

accommodation — приспособление

air – воздух

shelter – убежище

site – участок, место

waste – отбросы

build – строить

dispose – избавляться от

provide – обеспечивать

take place – иметь место

use – использовать

use – использование

indoors adv. – в помещении

outdoors adv. – на воздухе, на улице
2. Прочтите и переведите текст

We build because we need shelter. We need shelter from sun, rain, wind, and snow. Our activities mostly take place indoors. For these activities we may need air that is warmer or cooler than the air outdoors, less light by day and more light by night than is provided by nature.

Modern people in many countries also need services. Modern services must provide energy, water, communications, and dispose of waste. All services ad accommodations are planned and located on a site plan. A site plan must be prepared and provided for every building and every construction.
3. Переведите слова и соотнесите их согласно частям речи

Model: nouns verbs adj. adv.

importance to use important indoors

use, to use, useful, uselessly, serve, service, shelter, site, place, take place, mainly, main, door, indoors, need, sanitary, natural, nature, naturally, outdoors, prehistoric, predetermination
4. Замените существительные соответствующими прилагательными и переведите новые выражения

Model: water — watery taste — водянистый вкус

dirt —______________ waste —____________

rain —______________ season —_____________

wind —______________ weather —_____________

sun —______________ morning —_____________

snow —______________ day —_____________
5. Переведите следующие словосочетания

much air, less light, few people, more waste, little energy, a few buildings, fewer sites, many shelters, little sunshine
6. Замените русские слова английскими эквивалентами

1.They stayed (в помещении) (из-за) the rainy weather.

2. People build houses (так как) they need (убежище) .

3. People’s activity takes place both (в доме) ____ and (на улице) ____ .

4. Accommodations are (планируются заранее) _____ and located on a site plan.
Part 2

1. Прочтите слова

among – среди

arrangement - устройство, при­способление

branch — отрасль, ветвь

highway – дорога общего поль­зования, шоссе

facility — удобство, возможность

facilities — средства,

bridge — мост

bridge — мост

civil — гражданский

difference — разница, различие

enterprise — предприятие
2. Прочтите и переведите текст

In order to have shelter provided with modern services and accom­modation, people all over the world use many different construction ma­terials and arrange them into different constructions. Since prehistoric times these constructions have served as shelter and accommodation for a man, a group of people, a family, a few families, many families, an organi­zation, or an enterprise.

What are the branches modern civil construction has? Among the branches the main ones are housing construction, construction of indus­trial enterprises, construction of railroads, highways, subways, construc­tion of bridges, dams, ports, canals, construction of different sporting fa­cilities. Among them there are stadiums, aquaparks, swimming pools, sporting complexes, and others.
3. Ответьте на вопросы

1. What branches of modern civil construction do you know?

2. What branches of modern civil construction are you interested in?
4. Соедините по смыслу прилагательные с существительными и переведите новые словосочетания

Model: civil construction — гражданское строительство

(a) civil, main, sporting, housing, industrial, different

(b) branches, pool, enterprises, facilities, construction, materials
TEXT 2. Some Building Professions
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

apprentice ученик, подмастерье

bid – предложение цены; претензия

carpenter плотник

cornice карниз

drain – дренажная труба, канава; дренировать, осушать

expose – выставлять (напоказ, на продажу), подвергать (опасности)

granolithic – сделанный из искусственного гранита

joiner – столяр

lathing сетка (под штукатурку)

mould форма, тех. лекало, шаблон; формовать, делать по шаблону

plumber – водопроводчик; паяльщик

render – воздавать; представлять; делать превращать

request просьба, требование; ком. спрос

sheet – лист (бумаги и т. п.); ~ iron листовое железо
2. Прочтите и переведите текст

A man, who has been an apprentice for some years in a building trade and has therefore enough skill to be considered a skilled work­er at his trade1, is called tradesman or craftsman. He may be a carpenter-and-joiner, bricklayer, mason, slater-and-tiler2, plumber, electrician, house painter, plasterer, paper-hanger, hot water fitter3 and so on.

Bricklayer is a tradesman who builds and repairs brickwork, lays and joints salt glazed stoneware drains, sets, chimney pots, manhole frames and fireplaces. He renders brickwork, including the insides of manholes. In some districts of Great Britain, bricklayers also fix wall and flooring tiles and slating and lay plaster and granolithic floors.

Carpenter is a man who erects wood frames, fits joints, fixes wood floors, stairs and window frames, asbestos sheeting and other wall-board. He builds or dismantles wood or metal formwork. The two trades of carpenter and joiner were originally the same, and most men can do both, but specialize in one or the other. In the USA the term "carpenter" includes a joiner.

Joiner is a man who makes joinery and works mainly at the bench on wood, which has been cut and shaped by the machinists. His work is finer than the carpenter's, much of it being highly finished and done in a joinery shop which is not exposed to weather 4. In Scotland a joiner is a carpenter-and-joiner.

Mason is a stone worker or stone setter. In Scotland and the USA a bricklayer is usually also a mason. A fixer or a fixer mason or a builder mason is a mason who sets prepared stones in walls, whether the stone be only facing or to the full wall thickness.

Plasterer is a tradesman who may be a fibrous plasterer or a plasterer in solid work. The latter lays successive coats of plaster or rendering and fixes fibrous plaster such as mould cornices and wall pattern. He can use a horsed mould, erect lathing for plaster, and apply stucco5.

A construction manager, or CM, provides services similar to those of general constructor, but represents client's interest during all phases of the building process — design as well as construction. For example, working with the architect during design, the CM provides updated cost projections so that a client will know probable costs, which the project evolves.

The CM decides who bids the job, picks up the request for invita­tion to bid, evaluates the bids, and awards work to the most reason­able bidder. He also prepares contracts and sends them out to the subcontractors.

The CM may be responsible for the safety of workers on the construction site, too.
1. ...to be considered a skilled worker at his trade — может считаться искусным в своем ремесле

2. ...slater-and-tiler — кровельщик (мастер по укладке черепицы)

3. ...hot water fitter—теплотехник

4... .which is not exposed to weather—который не подвержен погоде

5. Не can use horsed mould, erect lathing for plaster, and apply stucco — Он может использовать опалубку для бетона, крепить сетку под штукатурку и применять отделочный гипс.
3. Найдите английские эквиваленты к следующим словам и словосочетаниям

мастер по укладке черепицы –

считаться искусным в своем ремесле –

быть подверженным влиянию погоды –

многослойная штукатурка –

столярная мастерская –

верхолаз –

каменщик –
4. Заполните пропуски соответствующими словами из текста

1... .is called tradesman or craftsman.

  1. A fixer or a fixer mason or a builder mason is a mason who....

  2. In the USA the term....

  3. In some districts..., and slating and lay plaster and grano­lithic floors.

5. ... including the insides of manholes.
5. Составьте из приведенных ниже слов пары

а) синонимов

build, wood, job, assistance, requirement, manufacture, apart­ment, usual, supply, different, timber, construct, entirely, pro­duce, work, factory, various, up-to-date, provide, ordinary, help, flat, plant, modern, demand, completely

b) антонимов

dismantle, useless, bottom, unusual, increase, speed up, adverse, heavy, useful, slow down, usual, light, assemble, reduce, upper floor, favourable
TEXT 3. Describing of a House Plan
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

single-storey building – одноэтажное здание

square-shaped plan – план квадратной формы

narrower shaped plan – план вытянутой формы

locate – располагаться

south (east) side – южная (восточная) сторона

adjacent – соседний, примыкающий

dining area – столовая (обеденная зона)

access – доступ
2. Прочтите описание дома А и переведите его на русский язык

The house is a single-storey building with a square-shaped plan. It contains seven rooms. The entrance which is located on the south side leads into a hall. On the left of the hall is the living room and beyond that in the north-west corner is the dining area. The kitchen is adjacent to the dining area. A terrace is situated outside the living room on the west side. A toilet is located in the centre of the house. Access to the toilet is from the hall. The two bedrooms are located on the east side with a bathroom between them. There is also an entrance to the kitchen on the north side.
3. Обозначьте названия комнат на плане


Plan of House A Plan of House В

3. Прочтите утверждения и скажите для какого плана они верны (для плана А, для плана В или для обоих). Составьте утверждения, чтобы сравнить планы дома А и В, обратите внимание на образец

Example: This house contains eight rooms. Answer. House B.

House A contains seven rooms whereas House В contains eight rooms.

  1. The front door of this house opens inwards.

  2. The toilet is located in the south-east corner of the house.

  3. The terrace extends the whole length of the western wall.

  4. It has a longer and narrower shaped plan.

  5. The kitchen door opens outwards.

  6. The bathroom has a window.

  7. This house has a study.

h) It does not have a separate dining room.

i) The windows of the living room face west.

j) The kitchen window faces north.
4. Спроектируйте одноэтажный дом и сравните свой план с чертежом А
TEXT 4. Types of Buildings
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

manner – способ

occupancy – занятость

frame construction – каркасная конструкция

fireproof – огнеупорный

ordinary – обычный

sheathe – обшивать

veneer – облицовывать

stucco – штукатурка          

sheet – лист          

masonry – каменный

designate – обозначать  

incombustible – несгораемый

reinforced concrete – железобетон  

 

2. Прочтите и переведите текст                                                    

The majority of building codes divide building into classes based upon the manner of their construction, use, or occupancy.

The following division into classes applies to the manner of construction:

1.Frame construction

2. Non-fireproof construction

a) Ordinary construction

b) Slow-burning construction

3. Fireproof construction

Frame construction embraces all buildings with exterior walls of wooden framework sheathed with wood shingles or siding; veneered with brick, stone, or terra cotta; or covered with stucco or sheet metal. Such buildings naturally have floors and partitions of wood and are considered as comprising the most inflammable type of construction.

Non-fireproof construction includes all buildings with exterior walls of masonry but with wood floor construction and partitions.  Slow-burning construction designates heavy timber framing designed as far as possible to be fire resistant, the heavy beams and girders of large dimension proving far less inflammable than the slender joists of ordinary construction.

Fireproof construction includes all buildings constructed of incombustible material throughout, with floors of iron, steel, or reinforced concrete beams, filled -in between with terra cotta or other masonry arches or with concrete slabs. Wood may be used only for under and upper floors, window and door frames, sash, doors, and interior finish. In buildings of great height the flooring must be of incombustible material and the, doors, frames, and interior finish of metal. Wire glass is used in the windows, and all structural and reinforced steel must be surrounded with fireproof material, such as hollow terra cotta and gypsum tile to protect the steel from the weakening effect of great heat.
 3. Выберите правильный вариант, соединив части предложений

1. Frame construction … … includes all burnings with exterior walls

of masonry but with wood floor

construction and partitions.

2. Non-fireproof construction … embraces all buildings with exterior wall

of wooden framework.

3. Fireproof construction … designates heavy timber framing designates

as far as possible to be fire resistant.

4. Slow-burning construction … includes all buildings constructed of

incombustible material.
4.  Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний

Деревянный каркас, перегородка, внешняя стена, тяжелая балка, стропило, бетонная плита, оконный переплет.
UNIT 2. SITE WORKS
TEXT 1. Site Investigation
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

investigation – исследование

data – данные

proposed – предложенный, утвержденный

annotate – снабжать примечаниями

dimension – рассчитать, обеспечить расчетами

adjacent – примыкающий, соседний

site – площадка, участок

appertain – принадлежать, относиться к чему-л.

subsoil – подпочва

ascertain – установить, подтвердить

trial pit – испытательная, пробная яма

augered hole – пробуравленная скважина

fault – недостаток

water table – поверхность воды
2. Прочтите и переведите текст

The basic objective of site investigation for new works is to collect systematically and record all the necessary data which will be needed or will help in the design and construction processes of the proposed work.

The collected data should be presented in the form of fully annotated and dimensioned plans and sections. Anything on adjacent sites which may affect the proposed works or conversely anything appertaining to the proposed works which may affect an adjacent site should also be recorded.

The purpose of this work is primarily to obtain subsoil samples for identification, classification and ascertaining the subsoil's characteristics and properties. Trial pits and augered holes may also be used to establish the presence of any geological faults and the upper or lower limits of the water table.
3. Ответьте на вопросы

1. What is the objective of site investigation?

2. What forms of presenting data are usually used?

3. What may be used to establish the presence of geological faults?
4. Найдите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний

строительный процесс –

образец подпочвы –

свойство –

наличие –

верхняя и нижняя границы –
TEXT 2. Soil Investigation
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

soil – почва

subsoil – подпочва

investigation – исследование

suitability – соответствие

site – площадка, участок

arise – возникать, появляться

occurrence – распространение

assess – оценить

obtain – получить, добыть

proposed – предложенный, утвержденный

foundation – земляное полотно, основание

(un)disturbed soil – грунт с (не)нарушенной структурой

disturb – нарушать

borehole – буровая скважина

trial pit – пробная яма, котлован, шурф

extract – извлекать

coring tools – инструментов для взятия керновой пробы
2. Прочтите и переведите текст

Soil investigation is related to the subsoil beneath the site under investigation and could be part of or separate from the site investigation.

The purpose of soil investigation is to determine the suitability of the site for the proposed project, an adequate and economic foundation design, the difficulties which may arise during the construction process, the occurrence and/or cause of all changes in subsoil conditions. This purpose can usually be assessed by establishing the physical, chemical and general characteristics of the subsoil by obtaining subsoil samples which should be taken from positions on the site which are truly representative of the area but are not taken from the actual position of the proposed foundations.

Soil samples can be obtained as disturbed or as undisturbed samples.

Disturbed soil samples are obtained from boreholes and trial pits. The method of extraction disturbs the natural structure of the subsoil but such samples are suitable for visual grading, establishing the moisture content and some laboratory tests.

Undisturbed soil samples are obtained by using coring tools which preserve the natural structure and properties of the subsoil. The extracted undisturbed soil samples are tested later in a laboratory.
3. Ответьте на вопросы

1. What is determined by soil investigation?

2. What are the kinds of soil samplers?

3. What method of extraction preserves the natural structure of the subsoil?
4. Выберите предложения, соответствующие содержанию текста

a) The purpose of soil investigation is assessed by establishing different characteristics of the subsoil.

b) Disturbed soil samples are obtained by using coring tools.

c) There are three methods of extraction of soil samples.

d) Undisturbed soil samples are tested in a laboratory.
TEXT 3. Setting out of a Building
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

set out – установить, размещать

building outline – контур здания

obstruction – заграждение, препятствие, преграда

reduced level – понижающий уровень

carry out – проводить

base line – базисная линия

coincide – совпадать

building line – линия застройки

trench – котлован, канава

excavation – земляные работы

proposed – предлагаемый

sawcut – распил

require – требовать
2. Прочтите и переведите текст

Setting out the building outline is usually undertaken after the site has been cleared of any obstructions and any reduced level excavation work is finished. It is usually the responsibility of the contractor to set out the building(s) using the information provided by the designer or architect. Accurate setting out is very important and should therefore only be carried out by competent persons and all their work thoroughly checked.

The first task in setting out the building is to establish a base line to which all the setting out can be related. The base line very often coincides with the building line, whose position on site is given by the local authority in front of which no development is permitted.

The objective of setting out trenches is twofold. Firstly it must establish the excavation size, shape and direction and secondly it must establish the width and position of the walls. By using the building outline profile boards can be set up to control the position, width and possibly the depth of the proposed trenches. The trench width can be marked on the profile with either nails or sawcuts and with a painted band if required for identification.
3. Ответьте на вопросы

1. Whom is setting out carried out by?

2. Who determines the position of the building line?

3. What is the objective of setting out trenches?
4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

1. a) A designer ……..

b) An architect ……. …… is responsible for setting out of a building.

c) A contractor …….

2. The objective of setting out is to……

a) establish the excavation size, shape and direction.

b) establish the excavation size, shape and direction and the width

and position of the walls.

c) establish the width and position of the walls.

3. The base line very often coincides with ……

a) the site profile.

b) the building line.

c) the position of the walls.
5. Найдите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний

размещение –

местные власти –

компетентный персонал –

обеспечивать –

требовать –
TEXT 4. Levelling
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

levelling – нивелирование

dimension – величина, размер

datum – нуль отсчета

bench mark – нивелирная марка

carved arrow – высеченный указатель

stable – устойчивый, прочный

manhole cover – крышка люка

fixture – неподвижная деталь

tilting – устанавливающийся под углом, поворотный

staff – рейка

screw – винт

air bubble – воздушный пузырек

vial – стеклянная ампула

cross hair – визирная нить

eliminate – устранять
2. Прочтите и переведите текст

Levelling is a process of establishing height dimensions, relative to a fixed point or datum. Datum is meant sea level, which varies between different countries. For UK purposes this is established at Newlyn in Cornwall. Relative levels defined by bench marks are located throughout the country. The most common, identified as carved arrows, can be found cut into walls of stable structures.

On site it is usual to measure levels from a temporary bench mark, i.e. a manhole cover or other permanent fixture.

Instruments consist of a level (tilting or automatic) and a staff. A tilting level is basically a telescope mounted on a tripod for stability. Correcting screws establish accuracy in the horizontal plane by air bubble in a vial. Cross hairs of horizontal and vertical lines indicate image sharpness on an extending staff of 3, 4 or 5 m length. An automatic level is much simpler to use, eliminating the need for manual adjustment.
3. Закончите предложения в соответствии с текстом

a) Levelling is …… .

b) It is usual to measure …… .

c) …… are located throughout the country.

c) A level of the instruments may be …… .

d) …… indicate image sharpness.
4.Соедините соответствующие прилагательные с существительными

a) level, fixture, structures, line, mark, plane;

b) temporary, horizontal, stable, permanent, tilting, vertical.
TEXT 5. Theodolite
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

theodolite – теодолит

tripod mounted – установленный на треноге, штативе

plane – плоскость

focal location – фокусное расположение

compatible – совместимый

sighting – визирование, наблюдение

average – усреднять

alignment – выравнивание, горизонтальная проекция

face – грань, сторона

vice-versa – наоборот
2. Прочтите и переведите текст

Theodolite – a tripod mounted instrument designed to measure angles in the horizontal or vertical plane.


the theodolite in principle
For measurement a telescope provides a focal location between the instrument and a subject. The position of the scope is defined by an index of angles. The scale and presentation of angles varies from traditional micrometer readings to computer compatible crystal displays. Angles are measured in degrees, minutes and seconds, e.g. 165° 53' 30''.


At least two sightings are taken and the readings averaged. After the first sighting, the horizontal plate is rotated through 180° and the scope also rotated 180° through the vertical to return the instrument to its original alignment for the second reading. This process will move the vertical circle from right face to left face, or vice-versa.

3. Ответьте на вопросы

1.What is theodolite designed for?

2. What is the position of the telescope defined by?

3. How many sightings are taken for the measurement?
4. Переведите словосочетания на русский язык

vertical circle, horizontal or vertical plane, focal location, original alignment, right face, presentation of angles.
5. Расставьте предложения по порядку, в соответствии с принципом работы теодолита

a) Average the readings.

b) Look at the micrometer scale.

c) Put the theodolite in a proper position.

d) Take another sighting.

e) Measure the angle in a proper plane.

f) Use the focal location between the instrument and a subject.

g) Return the instrument to its original alignment.

UNIT 3. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
TEXT 1. Construction Materials
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

advantage – преиму- purpose – цель

щество resistance – сопротивление

artificial – искусственный, strength – прочность, сила

фиктивный timber – строевой лес, бревна,
brick – кирпич лесной материал

concrete – бетон wood – древесина, роща

gravel – гравий woodwork – плотницкая работа,
durable – прочный, деревянные изделия

долговременный decay – гнить, затухать

property – свойство vary – варьировать, меняться

alloy – сплав ferrous – соединения закиси железа
2. Разделите слова на две группы: природные и искусственные материалы

metal, stone, brick, concrete, gravel, wood, sand, timber, iron
3.Соедините соответствующие прилагательные с существительными

  1. artificial, durable, various, useful, low, advantageous, high

  2. process, materials, properties, strength, industry, resistance, cost


4. Прочтите и переведите текст

Materials used for construction purposes possess different proper­ties. They differ in durability, strength, weight, fire- and decay-resistance and, naturally, cost.

Wood, timber, brick, stone, concrete, metals, and plastics belong to the most popular building materials used nowadays. They all have their advantag­es and disadvantages that are taken into account when designing a structure.

Wood belongs to naturally growing materials. It is known to be the oldest construction material and is still widely used for different purposes. Wood is popular since it has low weight and is easy to work. Besides, it grows naturally and is cheap. But its usage is limited because of its disad­vantages: it easily burns and decays. As to stone, it also belongs to the old­est building materials. Among its advantages there are strength, high heat insulation and fire-resistance.

Brick belongs to artificial construction materials. It has been used in many countries and in different climates. In modern times bricks vary wide­ly with the method of production and temperature of burning.

Concrete is known to be one of the most popular building materials. It is produced by mixing cement, gravel, water, and sand in the proper amounts.

Metals belong to hard and fire-resistant building materials. There exist two main groups of metals: ferrous and non-ferrous. Non-ferrous are metals whose main component is not iron. As to iron, steel and their al­loys, they belong to the group of ferrous metals.
5. Ответьте на вопросы

  1. Into what groups can construction materials be divided?

  2. What are the advantages (disadvantages) of wood, stone, metals?

  3. What two groups are metals divided into?

  4. What is the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals?


6. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык

foundation depth, various properties, process of decay, artificial atmosphere, gravel concrete, timber frame, gravel sand.
TEXT 2. Wood
1. Прочтите слова и словосочетания

wood – древесина, строевой лесоматериал; роща

content – содержание, доля

evaporation – испарение

contain – содержать в себе
decrease – уменьшать(ся)

decrease – уменьшение, спад

increase – возрастать

increase – рост, увеличение

the only – единственный
2. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык

1. Water content is known to decrease in the cut wood.

2. Wood as a structural material is considered to be highly used because
of its low weight, low cost, and high workability.

3. Use of concrete for building purposes is announced to be constantly
increasing all over the world.

4. The strength and hardness of cut wood are known to increase as its
water content evaporates.
3. Прочтите и переведите текст

Wood has been a highly used building material since prehistoric times. Among other highly used construction materials there are concrete, steel, brick, stone, and plastics. They all differ in their properties and in the methods of usage. Construction materials are known to differ in strength, hardness, fire- and corrosion-resistance durability, and, naturally, cost.

Being the oldest building material, wood is also known to be the only naturally growing organic material. Is wood strong? Hardly so, because wood always contains some water which decreases its strength. But after the wood is cut, the water content starts to evaporate and as the water content decreases the strength of the cut wood and its hardness start to increase. It is a well-known fact that the drier is the cut wood the greater is its strength and hardness.

Trees are known to grow naturally, which makes wood a constantly renewable natural resource. Among other advantages of wood there are its low cost, low weight, and high workability. But, as any other construction material, wood has its disadvantages. The main ones are the following - it is not fire-resistant, it easily burns. Besides, it easily decays.
4. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов

Строительные материалы, бетон, кирпич, свойства, различаться, преимущества, недостатки, гнить.
TEXT 2. Concrete
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

Похожие:

Construction work iconИнструкция по подключению беспроводной сети hse. Work к компьютеру...
Беспроводная сеть Wi-Fi с именем (ssid) hse. Work предназначена для доступа к внутренним информационным ресурсам ниу вшэ и контенту...

Construction work iconИнструкция по подключению сети hse. Work на смартфоне с операционной...
Беспроводная сеть Wi-Fi с именем (ssid) hse. Work предназначена для доступа к внутренним информационным ресурсам ниу вшэ и контенту...

Construction work iconИнструкция по подключению сети hse. Work к компьютеру с операционной...
Беспроводная сеть Wi-Fi с именем (ssid) hse. Work предназначена для доступа к внутренним информационным ресурсам ниу вшэ и контенту...

Construction work iconVolume 3/5 Instrumentation and Control Work Specification

Construction work iconWork” and targeted expenditure of the monetary funds remitted to the Contractor

Construction work iconWork and Motivation  Find the following words and word combinations in the text

Construction work iconBusiness English is… What do you think it is? Some people think that...

Construction work iconSold bicycles. When I published my first work ‘History of Western...

Construction work iconПрограмма обучения субъектов предпринимательской деятельности «Эффективное...
Управление собой в периоды изменений, концепция здоровьесбережения, work life balance

Construction work iconLifts. General safety requirements for the construction and installation
...

Construction work iconУчебно методическое пособие английский язык english for students...
Министерство профессионального образования, подготовки и расстановки кадров Республики Саха (Якутия)

Construction work iconЬных систем из металлических и полиэтиленовых труб the general provision...
По проектированию и строительству газораспределительных систем из металлических и полиэтиленовых труб

Construction work iconРуководство по эксплуатации и техническому обслуживанию shantui construction machinery co., Ltd
Руководство должно храниться рядом с машиной для того, чтобы им можно было воспользоваться при возникновении каких-либо вопросов,...

Construction work iconСтроительные нормы и правила РФ сниП 12-01-2004 "Организация строительства"...
Настоящие строительные нормы и правила имеют рекомендательный характер и устанавливают для добровольного применения общие правила...

Construction work iconРуководство по эксплуатации и техническому обслуживанию shantui construction machinery co., Ltd
Вт (320 л с.). Настоящее руководство описывает устройство машины, технические характеристики, правила эксплуатации и технического...

Construction work iconКраткая инструкция по активации ключей и регистрации продукта
Этот ключевой файл может быть сразу же активирован для работы с программным продуктом Kaspersky® Work Space Security. Временный ключевой...


Руководство, инструкция по применению




При копировании материала укажите ссылку © 2018
контакты
rykovodstvo.ru
Поиск