Е. В. Тихонова английский язык для самостоятельной работы студентов учебное пособие Омск

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НазваниеЕ. В. Тихонова английский язык для самостоятельной работы студентов учебное пособие Омск
ТипУчебное пособие
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what was to become a new kind of institution for America. 2. Carnegie Institution was the first to be devoted wholly to fundamental research over wide fronts of science in the most completely basic aspect. 3. Carnegie Institution was established specifically to encourage investigation, research and discovery. 4. The only commitment of the scientists of this Institution is to carry on research. 5. They choose their own fields of investigation. 6. The scientists in the last sixty years have made far-ranking major contributions to knowledge. 7. Work in the pioneering areas is being carried on in six research centres. 8. The research centresare operated by the Institution and by individual scientists and research teams. 9. The observatory is currently engagedin programs on the physical nature and evolution of celestial bodies. 10. The Geophysical Laboratory conducts broad studies on the structure, formation and evolution of the earth's crust. 11. Research at this Department covers a wide range of subjects.

Ex. 2. Answer the questions.

1. Who was the founder of the Carnegie Institution? 2. When was the Carnegie Institution founded? 3. What was the Carnegie Institution to be devoted to? 4. What is the only commitment of the scientists of the C.I.? 5. What contribution did the scientists of this Institution make to knowledge? 6. How many research centres carry on work in the pioneering areas? 7. How are the research centres operated? 8. What is the observatory currently engaged in? 9. What kinds of studies does the Geophysical Laboratory conduct? 10. Where are biological studies carried on at the Carnegie Institution? 11. Whom does the Carnegie Institution annually invite to carry on studies so as to use the facilities of the Institution? 12. How are the results of the Institution's research presented to the world?
Words to be remembered:

  1. to devote - посвящать

  2. to encourage - воодушевлять

  3. to investigate - investigation - исследовать, исследование

  4. to discover - discovery - открывать, открытие

  5. to apply - application - применять, применение

  6. to improve - improvement - улучшать, улучшение

  7. mankind - человечество

  8. commitment - обязательство

  9. to carry on research - проводить исследования

  10. far-ranging -имеющие широкое применение

  11. to contribute - contributions - вноситьвклад, содействие

  12. jointly - совместно

  13. currently -постоянно

  14. celestial bodies -небесные тела

  15. Earth's crust - земная кора

  16. internal - внутренний

  17. annually - ежегодно

  18. facilities -оборудование

  19. freelyandpromptly- свободно и быстро

  20. to present to - представлять

  21. titles -труды

  22. volumes - тома

Some Facts about famous American Universities

1. The most world-known universities in the USA are: The Harvard University- private university at Cambridge, Massachusetts, mainly for men, was founded in 1636. The Princeton University is a private one, for men, at the town of Princeton, New Jersey, was founded in 1746 as the College of New Jersey. Besides liberal arts and sciences it has schools of public and international affairs, architecture and engineering. The Yale University is situated in Connecticut it was founded in 1701. Women students are admitted. Here the Institute of Human Relations is situated founded 1929. 2. Students in America are classified as freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors.

A freshman is a first-year student; a sophomore - a second-year student; a junior - a third-year student, and a senior - a forth-year student. All students who have graduated from the senior class and who continue studying at a university are classified as advanced students or graduate students. Some of them receive grants or stipend which cover the cost oftheir education, a person on such a fellowship is called a university fellow.

He may assist a professor with special research assume responsibility for some classroom instruction. A few are called unclassified students; these are usually transfer students who have changed schools or special students and foreign students whose previous advanced study was not according to the usual system in the United States.
Ex. 1. Read the sentences and choose the right equivalent for them in the list given below.

1. A large number of various colleges and other institutions. 2. A sort of consultation given to British students which is a traditional feature of Oxford and Cambridge Universities. 3. The place where British students live, have meals, read subjects. 4. A first-year student in America. 5. A process of education after kindergartens. 6. Students who have great progress in their studies. 7. Junior high school for three years and senior high school for three years.

1. American secondary education; 2. a freshman; 3. a British college; 5. a tutorial; 6. advanced student; 7. elementary or primary school.





Niels Bohr(1885-1962)

Bohr is a Danish physicist, one of the most ingenious interpreters of his generation of the problems of modern theoretical physics. Born in Copenhagen on October 7, 1885 he did physics at the University of Copenhagen, obtaining his doctor's degree in 1911 and proceeded immediately to Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge for further study under Sir J. J. Thomson. In 1912 he moved to Manchester University, where he was associated with Ernest Rutherford in the latter's atomic research. In 1914, following a year as lecturer at the University of Copenhagen Bohr returned to Manchester, remaining there until 1916, when he was made professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen.

In 1920, largely due to Bohr's efforts, the Institute of Theoretical Physics was established at Copenhagen. He became its first head and under him the Institute has become an important centre for the development of theoretical and experimental physics. Prior to World War II Bohr's Institute had become the world centre for atomic physics.

Just before World War II, Bohr advanced the idea that the compound nucleus was fundamental to the phenomena of nuclear disintegration, a concept that proved fruitful in later work. In collaboration with John Archibald Wheeler he proposed a theory of nuclear fission that led to atomic research which produced the atomic bomb.

In 1943, after the Nazis had occupied Denmark, Bohr escaped to England in a small boat. Making the way to the United States, he took a leading part in the atomic bomb project, working mainly at the laboratory established in early 1943 at Los Alamos in New Mexico. In 1944-1945 Bohr served as adviser to the Scientific Staff of the Manhattan Project. In 1945 Bohr returned to Copenhagen to resume his duties as director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics.

Bohr's great achievement was recognized internationally by the Nobel prize award to him in 1922 for his study of atomic structure and radiation. In 1957 he was the first recipient of the Atoms for Peace award. That same year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he delivered his lecture on the Philosophical Lessons of Atomic Progress.
Words to the text:

  1. ingenious - изобретательный

  2. interpreter - толкователь, переводчик

  3. generation - поколение

  4. to do physics - преподавать физику

  5. to obtain a doctor's degree - получатьстепеньДокторанаук

  6. to proceed - продолжать

  7. to be associated with - бытьобязанным

  8. an associate professor - доцент

  9. the latter - последний

  10. due to - благодаря

  11. prior to - до

  12. disintegration - разложение на составные части

  13. in collaboration with - совместно

  14. to propose - предлагать

  15. nuclear fission - расщепление ядра

  16. to escape - скрываться, исчезать

  17. adviser - советник

  18. to resume - возобновлять

  19. toawardaNobelPrize- награждать Нобелевской премией

  20. recipient - получатель

Ex. 1. Read aloud the statements below and translate them into Russian paying special attention to the new words:

1. Bohr is one of the moat ingenious interpreters of his generation of the problems of modern theoretical physics. 2. He did physics at the University of Copenhagen, obtaining his doctor's degree in 1911. 3. He proceeded immediately to Cambridge for further studies under Thomson. 4. In 1912 he moved to Manchester University where he was associated with Rutherford in the latter's atomic research. 5. In 1914, following a year as lecturer at the University of Copenhagen, Bohr returned to Manchester. 6. In 1920, largely due to Bohr's efforts, the Institute of Theoretical Physics was established at Copenhagen. 7. Bohr became its first head and under him the Institute has become a world famous centre of research. 8. Bohr took a leading part in the atomic bomb project, working mainly at the laboratory established in early 1943. 9. In 1944-1945 Bohr served as adviser to the scientific staff of the Manhattan project. 10. In 1945 Bohr returned to Copenhagen to resume his duties as director of the Institute. 11. Bohr's great achievement was recognized internationally by the Nobel prize award to him. 12. In 1957 he was the first recipient of the Atoms for Peace Award. 13. That same year he delivered his lecture on the Philosophical Lessors of Atomic Progress.
Ex. 2. Answer the following questions using words and expressions from the text.

Model: 1. Where did Bohr study physics?

2. He did physics at the University of Copenhagen.

1. When did Bohr graduate from the University? 2. Where did he go in 1912? 3. What idea did he put forward just before World War II? 4. Did he advance this idea along or working together with Wheeler? 5. Did he participate in atomic research? 6. When did he come back to Copenhagen? 7. When did Bohr's contribution win him international recognition? 8. Was he the first to receive the Atoms for peace award? 9. When did he give his lecture on the Philosophical Lessons of Atomic Progress?
Ex. 3. Ask and answer questions about outstanding people in different fields of human activity. Use the indefinite article before nouns denoting profession. Here is: architect, artist, composer, inventor, playwriter, poet, philosopher, writer, scientist, archaeologist, astronomer, biologist, biochemist, botanist, chemist, historian, mathematician, philologist, physiologist, physicist; famous, world-famous, well-known, world-known, eminent, outstanding, prominent, distinguished, etc.

Mode1: a) 1. Was Dalton a scientist?

    1. Yes, he was a distinguished scientist.

b) 1. Was Hopkins a writer?

2. No, he wasn't. He was an outstanding biochemist.

Speak in the same way about Aristotle, Beethoven, Byron, Darwin, Dickens, Edison, Einstein, Faraday, Rossini, Levitan, Lobachevski, Mendeleyev, Newton, Pavlov, Rembrandt, Rutherford, B. Shaw, J. Grim, Schliemann, Tchaikovski, Tolstoy and others.
Ex. 4. Read the sentences aloud and translate them into Russian:

1. I was greatly impressed by what I head in your talk. 2. We were greatly impressed by the way he conducted his experiment. 3. The audience was greatly impressed by what the speaker said. 4. He was deeply impressed by what he had seen during his trip.
Ex. 5. Read the following sentences aloud and translate them into Russian paying special attention to the link-verb:

1. Are you familiar with modern views on atomic structure? 2. I got familiar with Darwin's theory while at school. 3. Am I to understand that he is interested in mechanism? 4. He got interested in dynamics when a boy of 14. 5. He wasn't acquainted with my work when he wrote his thesis. 6. She got acquainted with our work after she had read our paper.

Isaac Newton

In the little village of Woolthorpe, not far from the old university town of Cambridge, in a farmer's house Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642.

As a schoolboy, Newton used to make things with his own hands. In particular, he made a primitive wooden clock that was driven by the slow escape of water.

His family wanting him to become a farmer, he did his best to be of use at the farm, but with no success, his mind being always busy with observing various phenomena of nature and reflecting upon them.

At the age of 18 he was sent to Cambridge and there he followed the ordinary mathematical courses of his time.

Some years after having taken his degree he was appointed professor to the chair of physics and mathematics at Cambridge. He delivered an extended course of lectures in optics which were not published until some sixty years later.

The study of light was Newton's favorite study. Having made a number of experiments with lenses, he came to the conclusion that white light consisted of rays of different colours and that each particular kind of coloured ray was differently bent when it fell on a glass surface at the angle. His results formed the basis of modern spectrography, greatly enriching the field of optics.

While quite a young man he developed a mathematical method indispensable for all questions involving motion. (This method which is known under the name of the differential and the integral calculus was developed at the same time by the German scientist and philosopher Leibnitz.)

The theory of gravity was developed by him in its essential features when he was only 24, but some twenty years later he returned to his subject. Having been brought, by the fall of the apple, he came to the conclusion that the apple and the earth were pulling one another he began to think of the same pull of gravity extending far beyond the earth. The problem of the paths of the planets one of the greatest problems of those times, was "what laws could account for the ceaseless motion of the planets round the sun?"

Newton deduced and calculated the force of gravity acting between the sun and the planets, thus establishing the law of gravitation in its most general form. By discovering this law, he demonstrated the uniformity of things and found a connecting link between the mechanics of the earth and the mechanics of the heavens. His great work "Principia" published in 1667 gave an insight into the structure and mechanics of the universe.

He also discovered the laws of motion which we still consider to be the basis of all calculation concerning the motion.

He died in 1727, at the age of eighty-four. His funeral ceremonies were those of a national hero. It was the first time that national honours of this kind have been awarded in England to a man of science or to any figure in the world of thought, learning or art.
Ex. 1. Translate into Russian paying attention to Participles and Infinitives.

1. Taking great interest in the study of light, Newton devoted to it much of his time, his results involving the analysis of white light. 2. He is known to have delivered an extended course of lectures involving problems of optics. 3. He found white light to consist of rays of different colours. 4. He was one of the first to deal with the problem concerning the nature of light. 5. His having published a book on the analysis of white light greatly contributed to the foundation of modern spectography.
Ex. 2. Translate into Russian:

Although a genius of science, Newton owed much to his predecessors. The year of his birth was the year of the death of Galileo. Galileo had founded the science of mechanics and his application of the astronomical telescope (then recently invented) had been of the greatest help in the study of the heavens. Copernicus, Bruno and Kepler had overthrown the old conception of the earth as the centre of the universe.

Newton himself modestly said: "If I have seen farther than most men, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants".

While studying light, Newton invented the reflecting telescope. It was only an inch in diameter, and six inches long, but it magnified forty times and gave a good view of the Jupiter's moons.

He made a larger one. You can see it in the library of the Royal Society in London, and there you can read: "The first reflecting telescope, invented by Sir Isaac Newton, and made with his own hands".
Ex. 3. Answer questions:

1. When and where was Isaac Newton born? 2. What did his family want him to become? 3. At what age was he sent to Cambridge? 4. Where did he take his degree? 5. What was he appointed after having taken his degree? 6. What was his favorite study? 7. What was Newton's discovery in the field of optics? 8. What laws did Newton discover?
Ex. 4. Translate words into Russian.

to bring about, to carry out, to bring to, to put into, to come to, to achieve, to advance, to develop, to deliver, conclusion, idea, method, progress, operation, change, experiment, completion, lectures.
Ex. 5. Translate into Russian paying attention to underlined words.

1. When a child, Newton used to observe closely phenomena of nature. 2. Later on, he used these observations in making his deductions and conclusions. 3. When Newton began his calculations, he did not know that the figure for the distance from the earth to the moon was not correct. 4. Taking part in social activities, he was not only a great man of science, but also an outstanding public figure of his time. 5. His mind was always busy with reflecting upon the secrets of the universe. 6. Newton's reflecting telescope] although small in size, gave a general idea of the ceaseless motion of the Jupiter's moons. 7. The mathematical method developed by Newton was the subject of particularly numerous discussions at his time. 8. Since then it has become a quite indispensable subject in schools of higher learning.
Ex. 6. Translate the following word-groups.

the gravity distribution; the displacement phase angle, the modern physics development; the universal gravitation law; the calculation process; the world science problems.


M. Faraday

Michael Faraday (1791-1867), one of the greatest men of science, had little chance to get an education. His father was a blacksmith who made his living in the heat of his forge, and Faraday was born to work with his hands, too.

When thirteen years of age, he went as apprentice to learn bookbinding. He read many of the books he had to bind and made clear and careful notes from those books that interested him most. Once when binding an encyclopaedia, he ran across an article on electricity. When Faraday turned to that page and began to read he knew nothing of the subject, but it struck his imagination and aroused his interest.

With the little money he could save, he bought a cheap and simple apparatus and set to make experiments. The farther he went along the road, the more interested he became.

He attended the lectures of Humphry Davy, an outstanding scientist and the most popular lecturer in London at that time. It was Davy who helped Faraday to become assistant at the laboratory of the Royal Institute and to get a profounder knowledge of the subject.

While still an assistant he helped Davy to create a safety lamp for miners. He learned chemistry, lectured to young people interested in science and wrote for a quarterly scientific journal.

In his spare moments Faraday was working on the problem of turning gases into liquids. We know him to have heated hydrate of chlorine in a sealed tube and thus to have succeeded in liquefying chlorine. An important discovery of Faraday was that of benzol which he separated from condensed oil gas, and which since then found world-wide application.

For several years he is known to have been working at the problem of a perfect optical glass and to have made a glass that greatly improved the telescope.

Yet the problem of electricity and magnetism interested him above all. All the scientific world had known by that time that if a current is run through a copper wire wound around a piece of iron, the iron becomes a magnet. If electricity magnetizes, why won't magnetism electrify? That was the question Faraday asked himself over and over. For a long time he tried different experiments to solve the problem. At last in 1831 he made his major discovery in the field of electricity - the electromagnetic induction.

But Faraday's work on electricity could not end at this point. He set about testing electricity from every known source and after a series of tests came to the conclusion that "electricity, whatever the source may be, is identical in its nature".

Among a number of other discoveries he is also known to have measured for the first time the electric current, and to have made several important observations on the conductivity of different materials.

Although Faraday enjoyed world-wide popularity he remained a modest man never wanting either to accept high titles or to get any money out of his numerous discoveries.

He was one of those great men who made possible the age of electricity in which we live, all the marvels it brings us and all those it may bring to the future generations.
Ex. 1. Translate into Russian paying attention to Grammar.

Faraday made his greatest discovery a hundred years ago when there was no dynamo, no electric light, and no motors. Electricity was a plaything in the laboratory and had not the slightest connection with everyday life.

When working on magnetism, Faraday is said to have carried in his pocket a piece of iron with a copper wire wound on it. Whenever he got a spare moment, he would take piece of iron and start experimenting. He made many experiments without any result but kept on trying.

At last on October 17, 1331? Faraday tried the following experiment which led to the discovery of the electromagnetic induction. He wound 220 feet of copper wire on a hollow cylinder and connected the ends of the wire with a galvanometer. Holding a bar magnet in line with the hollow core of the coil, he moved one pole of the magnet in the opening. The needle of the galvanometer made a sudden jump. Quickly he drew the magnet out and again the needle made a jump in the opposite direction. The magnet being moved into the coil, the wire of the coil cut the lines of magnetic force and an electromotive force was formed by induction.

Thus, one of the world's greatest discoveries in the field of electricitywas made.
Ex 2. Translate sentences, paying attention to infinitives:

1 In his early youth Faraday had to save money to buy the apparatus necessary for his experiments. 2. We know him to have taken interest m many scientific and technical problems of his time. 3. He took part in the creation of a safety lamp to be used in mines. 4. To turn gases into liquids was one of the numerous problems he worked at. 5. He made a series of experiments in order to produce a perfect optical glass. 6. He is known to have improved the telescope as the result of a four years work. 7 After a while Faraday set to work on another important problem, that of magnetism 8There were many questions to be answered in this field of science.9. The main task of his work was to find out the nature of electricity andmagnetism.
Ex. 3. Try to translate, using infinitives:

1 Известно, что Фарадею было тринадцать лет, когда он прочитал первую статью об электричестве. 2. Изучить предмет, который поразил его воображение, стало целью его жизни. 3. Он начал посещать лекции Дэви, чтобы приобрести знания в этой области. 4. Позднее он помог Дэви создать безопасную лампу, которая должна была использоваться в рудниках. 5. Весь мир считает Фарадея одним из величайших ученых и изобретателей.
Ex. 4. Answer questions:

1 Had Faraday any chance to get an education? 2. What was his first employment? 3. When did Faraday become interested in electricity? 4. Whose lectures did he attend? 5. What did he create together with Davy? 6 What was his first important discovery? 7. What problem interested him above all? 8. When, did Faraday discover the electromagnetic induction?
Ex 5. Translate paying attention to the word "since":

1. Since his childhood Faraday took great interest in electricity

      1. Induced electromotive force has supplied most of the world's electricity since Faraday discovered it first in 1831.

      2. A great number of outstanding discoveries and perfections has beenmade in that field of science since.

      3. Since static electricity gives currents that are too small for most purposes) we widely use electricity produced by way of magnetism.

Ex. 6. Translate paying attention to the underlined words:

1. It was after reading an article in the encyclopaedia that Faraday turned his attention to electricity, 2. He turned to books and read everything he could get on the subject. 3. Next in turn was to buy a cheap apparatus and to set to work doing careful experiments. 4. It turned to be so interesting that Faraday began to attend lectures at the Royal Institute. 5. When an assistant at the laboratory, he succeeded in turning hydrate chlorine into liquid chlorine by heating it in a sealed tube. 6. At last after a series of experiments he came to the conclusion that just as electricity magnetizes, magnetism can electrify) in its turn.
Ex. 7. Translate into Russian:

Inventor, invention, inventive, inventiveness; movement, mover, movable, moveless, remove, removable, irremovable, immovable; create, creator, creative, creation; connect, disconnect, connection, connectable; reduce, reducible, irreducible, reduction.

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) is acknowledged to be the founder of the theory of atmospheric electricity. At the time when theories to explain electricity were neither complete nor well founded he began to experiment, and proved the lightning to be an electrical phenomenon. He was not the first to think of it but he was the first to prove it.

Franklin developed a new theory of electricity that called positive and negative, a division which still appears to hold good. He finally invented a means of protection against the disastrous effects of lightning - the lightning rod.

Franklin's theory of atmospheric electricity at first seemed to be misunderstood both in his country and in some countries abroad. It is known to have been severely attacked by the leader of French scientists, abbe Nollet, who either did not believe it or was envious of the discovery.

In Russia Franklin's work was received in an entirely different manner.

The newspaper published by the Russian Academy of Sciences wrote about "the important invention made in the North American City of Philadelphia which frequently destroys vast stretches of land."

Franklin is known and respected all over the world not only as a scientist but also as a citizen who did as much as he could for the good of his country.

In his early youth he worked as an apprentice and then as a printer in a newspaper which was often in trouble with the government. In this atmosphere of political struggle he developed broad and progressive ideas to which he remained true as long as he lived. Later on, he became an editor himself, his newspaper enjoying a great popularity with his countrymen as far as he remained at the head of it.

Coming out in defense of the American negroes. Franklin declared slavery to be not only an evil from the moral point of view, but also an obstacle to the social interests of America.

He is thought to be one of the broadest as well as one of the most creative minds of his time.
Ex. 1. Translate sentences using the following verbs: to prove,to happen, to seem, to appear:

1. Lomonosov and Franklin happened to make their experiments in the field of atmospheric electricity at about the same time. 2. Their points of view on the subject appear to be similar in many respects. 3. To some scientists of the past Franklin's theory seemed to give no efficient explanation of the phenomenon of lightning. 4. The lightning rod proved to be a most effective means of protection against the effects of lightning.
Ex. 2. Fill in the blanks with the given words: either...or, neither...nor, as much as, as far as, not only...but also..., as well as, both...and..., as long as, as early as.

1. Franklin devotedtime... he could to social activities. 2. He foundedthe first fire-company which was much neededalmost all buildingswere of wood. 3. He said that there was slavery in America, itwould be an obstacle to the country's social progress. 4. In his free hours he was engaged ... in research and experiments ... in the study of foreign languages. 5. At first Franklin's theory was acknowledged... in America... in France. 6. Franklin is respected in our country... as a scientist... a progressive political leader. 7. He printed books … … … magazines and newspapers. 8. He was engaged… … in scientific research… … in social activities. 9. Franklin's works were published in Russia… … …in the 18thcentury.
Ex.3 Translate the infinitives:

1. Some scientists abroad are known to have attacked Franklin's point of view on the electric nature of lightning. 2. Lomonosov believed Franklin to have achieved remarkable results in the field of atmospheric electricity. 3. Lightning is known to have frequently destroyed wooden buildings before the lightning rod was invented. 4. Franklin considered slavery to be an obstacle in the way of his country's progress. 5. He is known to have come out in defence of the American negroes.
Ex. 4. Substitute sentences, using the infinitive Constructions: 1. It is acknowledged that Franklin is the founder of a new theory of electricity. 2. He proved that there exist two kinds of electricity, negative and positive. 3. He was the first who suggested the idea of the division of electricity into positive and negative. 4. It is known that the invention of the lightning rod belongs to Franklin. 5. We know that libraries in the Russia possess Franklin's works.
Ex. 5. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

Франклин одним из первых изучил атмосферное электричество. 2. Он открыл, что молния - электрическое явление. 3. Признано, что он изобрёл громоотвод. 4. Известно, что Франклин посвящал много времени общественной деятельности. 5. Он считал рабство моральным и социальным злом. 6. Громоотвод признан надёжным средством защиты против разрушительного действия молнии.
Ex. 6. Use prefficsmis - for word formation and translate the new words:

use, print, lead, inform, calculate, pronounce, understand.
Ex. 7. Translate into Russian:

Franklin was always highly appreciated in our country. M.V. Lomonosov, who made independently his experiments in the field of atmospheric electricity, spoke with great respect of Franklin's scientific achievements. The library of the Russian Academy of Sciences possesses among its rarest editions a copy of Franklin's "New Experiments and Observations on Electricity made at Philadelphia in America". In the Russia the works of this remarkable man-citizen, scientist and thinker may be found in the bookshops as well as in the periodical press.
Ex. 8. Answer questions: 1. What theory did Franklin develop? 2. What means of protection against lightning did he develop? 3. By whom was his theory of atmospheric electricity attacked? 4. How was his work received in Russia? 5. How was he employed in his early youth? 6. What did he declare coming out in defense of the American negroes?


J. J. Thomson

In the closing years of the 19th.century a professor of physics in Cambridge discovered the electron. That was J.J. Thomson. First he was a student and then a lecturer in mathematics at one of the Cambridge colleges.

Thomson was a remarkable man. He saw further than his colleagues but even he couldn't imagine the profound effect of hisdiscovery on the lives of the people in the 20th century. Thomson's discovery paved the way for many exciting new discoveries, for example, the discovery of the atomic nucleus and the proton by Ernest Rutherford, the discovery of the neutron, and the invention of the particle accelerator by Rutherford's pupils.

These discoveries inspired the great physicists, who were then formulating their revolutionary theories - Planck's quantum theory, Einshtein's theory of relativity, Bohr's model of the atom and others. Notes:

        1. to imagine - подставить себе

        2. profound - глубокий

        3. to pave the way - продолжитьдорогу

        4. particle accelerator - ускоритель частиц

        5. to inspire - вдохновлять

Ex. 1. Answer the questions on the text:

1. Who discovered the electron?

2. What was J.J. Thomson?

3. What is Thomson's characteristic feature?

4. What was the result of Thomson's discovery?

5. Who discovered the neutron?

6. Whom did these discovery inspire?

          1. Who formulated quantum theory?

          2. Who formulated theory of relativity?

          3. By whom was the model of the atom discovered?

Ex. 2. Read and translate the sentences without a dictionary: Do you know that...

...the largest University building in the world is Moscow University which stands 787 feet high, has 32 stories and contains 40.000 rooms? It was built in 1949-1953. ...the most ancient city in England is Chester? ...the highest mountain in British Isles is Ben Nevis in Scotland?

...the narrowest street in Britain is Nelson Street? ...the oldest University in the World is the Egyptian University? ...one of the remarkable concert halls in the world is Royal Albert Hall in London?

...great composers like Wagner, Rakhmaninoff and Richard Strauss conducted and played their own works in this concert Hall.
Ex. 3. Read and translate the sentences paying attention to different meanings of the words: mean, very, performance, control, time:

1. Radio plays an important part as a means of communication. 2. Computer is a means of providing very quick solution to different problems. 3. The wave length of every radio station in the world is established by means of quartz crystal. 4. What does this term mean? 5. What did you mean when you told me to use only these techniques? 6. The main feature of university education is that the university draws all students into research work from the very beginning. 7. The main way in which research workers' engineers, higher school teachers get their scientific training is the post-graduate course. 8. Your performance of this work is excellent. 9. The performance of this motor is good. 10. Liquid is not the only possible state in which water can exist. 11. Public schools in the United States are under the control of the states. 12. Can you control the performance of this motor? 13. Time your watch with mine. Mine shows right time. 14. Five times five is twenty five. 15. Students spend much time on drawing.
Ex. 4. Translate into English:

1. Назовите некоторые из английских университетов. 2. Пусть Петров назовет самые старые университеты, а Иванов - самые новые. 3. Лондонский университет имеет много разных колледжей. 4. Некоторые из новых университетов имеют курсы технических и прикладных наук. 5. Студенты изучают ряд общеобразовательных дисциплин. 6. Они посещают лекции, которые читают профессора. 7. Традиционной особенностью университетов Оксфорда и Кембриджа является обучение небольшими группами в виде семинаров или консультаций. 8. Количество зачетов разное(изменяется) в каждом университете. 9. Хорошо успевающие студенты работают в тесном содружестве с преподавателями и проводят исследовательскую работу.
TEXT F James Watt

James Watt was born in Greenock, Scotland, and was taught at home later he went to Greenock Grammar School.

His technical expertise seems to have been obtained from working in his father's workshop and from early in life he showed academic promise. His early formal training was as an instrument maker in London and Glasgow.

Watt combined the expertise of a scientist with that of a practical engineer, for later he was not only to improve the heat engine but also to devise new mechanisms.

Watt was interested in making experimental models of steam engines and this marks a historical milestone in engineering development, for they were the first experimental apparatus purposely constructed for engineering research. Watt's early interest in steam arose from experience in repairing a model steam engine in 1764, and in 1765 he invented the separate steam condenser. In 1769 he took out a patent on the condenser in which steam came into direct contact with cold water; that was a milestone by which steam engineering reached its practical and usable form.

In 1784 he took out a patent for a reaction turbine at a time when continental engineers were only considering similar approaches. An improved centrifugal governor was to follow in 1788 and a design for a pressure gauge in 1790. The engine pressure indicator is also attributed to him.

In the development of the steam engine James Watt represents the perfecting of a sequence of stages beginning with the Newcomen engine and ending with the parallel motion and sun/planet gearing. The latter is said to have been invented by W. Murdock but patented by Watt.

In the scientific field Watt's finest memorial, apart from steam engines, is his establishment of the unit of power - the rate of doing work. He coined the term horsepower(hp); one horse being defined as equivalent to 33 000 ftlb/min.

Watt was interested in the strength of materials and designed a screw press for chemically Copying written material. A leading brand of reprographic equipment today is remarkably similar. Watt received many honors in recognition of his important works. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of London and Edinburgh, and was a member of the Academy of Sciences in France.

James Watt died in 1819 in Heathfield, after a life of incomparable technical value. Later, a statue to Watt was placed in Westminster Abbey.
Read words and try to remember them:

            1. expertise- мастерство

            2. academic promise - большие возможности

            3. to devise - придумывать, изобретать

            4. steam engine - паровой двигатель

            5. to mark a milestone - отмечатьвеху

            6. apparatus - приборы

            7. to repair - ремонтировать

            8. to take out patent - получитьпатент

            9. turbine - турбина

            10. centrifugal governor - центробежный регулятор

            11. apressuregauge- прибор для измерения давления

            12. attributed - приложенный

            13. to represent - представлять

            14. perfecting - усовершенствование

            15. sequence - последовательность

            16. gearing - приведение в движение механизмов

            17. memorial- запоминающийся

            18. to coin the term - ввеститермин

            19. screw press- винтовой пресс


              1. Where was James Watt born?

              2. Where did he study?

              3. Who was he in his youth?

              4. What features did he combine?

              5. What was he interested in?

              6. What did he invent in 1765?

              7. What patent did he take for?

              8. What did he design in 1783 and 1790?

              9. What does James Watt in the development of the steam engine represent?

              10. What term did he coin?

              11. What was he recognized for?

              12. When did James Watt die?

              13. Where was a statue to Watt placed?


Some Facts About Pioneers In The Field of Engineering Karl Benz (1844-1929)) the son of a railway engine-driver who died when Karl was two, studied engineering at the Karlsruhe Polytechnic. After various jobs he set up business, with successive partners in a very small way making two-stroke gas engines of his own design in 1880. Although he is entitled to be called the "inventor of the petrol car" he was reluctant to depart from his original design of belt driven horseless carriage which sold well in 1890s. Other designers were called in, and after 1902 Benz had little influence on the development of the motor car.

Frederick William Lanchester (1863-1946)) son of an architect, made Britain's first four-wheeled petrol car of wholly native design, 1895 with the help of his brother George. A small company was formed and production was begun late in 1899, Lanchester's designs were always unique and ahead of their time; he was responsible for many innovations which became accepted some years later. Those include a vibrationless, fully balanced engine, splined shafts, full-pressure lubrication, lightweight pistons, disk brakes, a preselector semiautomatic gearbox, worm drive, the torsional vibration damper, the harmonic balancer and more. «Doctor Fred» was also a pioneer authority and writer on aerodynamics, and for many years Consultant Engineer to the Daimler Co.

Henry Ford is usually credited with «inventing» mass-production, yet the idea originated many years earlier in the Connecticut clock trade and was developed in the American's small-arms industry. Henry Leland in America, De Dion Bouton in France and Lanchester in England all based their car production on fully interchangeable machined components, with the minimum of hand-fitting, some years before Ford.


Today machines have to withstand such tremendous stresses and to be able of such complex motions that complicated and specialized calculations taking hundreds of factors into account are needed in the design of even quite a simple machine like a motor-car engine.

So, as engineering progresses, engineers must become ever more scientific and specialized. Today the branches of engineering are so wide that it is impossible to give a satisfactory classification. But we may try to divide it into uses. The main divisions of engineering may be listed as follows:

                1. Mechanical engineering.

Steam engines; internal combustion engines; turbines (steam, gas, water); pumps; compressors; machine-tools; mechanisms.

                1. Electrical engineering.

                  1. Power: generators; motors; transformers; transmission (power lines and so on).

                  2. Electronics: radio, radar, television.

                2. Civil engineering. Dams; tunnels; roads; and so on.

                3. Structural engineering. The structural details of all large buildings and bridges.

                4. Chemical engineering.

Any of these blanches of engineering may require the special services of the following specialists: the metallurgist; the strength of materials expert; the thermodynamics of heat expert; the mechanics or machines experts; the various production engineering experts such as the engineering designer or the tool designer; the mathematician specializing in engineering problems and many more.

The engineer must also deal with the economists to assure himself that he is producing what is wanted, and economically.
Words to be remembered:

  1. to withstand - противостоять

  2. tremendous- огромный

  3. to take into account- принимать во внимание

  4. internal combustion engine- двигательвнутреннегосгорания

  5. to deal with - иметь дело


    1. What have today machines to withstand?

    2. Why must engineers more scientific and specialized become?

    3. What are the main divisions in engineering?

    4. What are they deal with?

    5. What specialists may any of branches of engineering require?


Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical engineering has been recognized as a separate branch of engineering since the formation of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers of Great Britain in 1847. The development of the textile machinery, steam engines, machine-tools, pumping machinery, turbines and locomotives of that time made such a diversity interest for civilian engineers that these and allied subjects were called mechanical engineering.

Mechanical engineering deals with the design, construction and operation of machines and devices of all kinds, and with research and sciences upon which these depend. Among these machines are prime movers such as engines and turbines using air, gas steam and water as operating media; pumping machines and other hydraulic apparatus; steam boilers, heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigerating equipment, transportation.
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