Е. В. Тихонова английский язык для самостоятельной работы студентов учебное пособие Омск




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НазваниеЕ. В. Тихонова английский язык для самостоятельной работы студентов учебное пособие Омск
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ТипУчебное пособие
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Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

application – применение

to remediate – восставливать

recycling – повторнаяпереработка

wastedisposal – удаление отходов или сточных вод

toevaluate - оценивать

impact – сильное воздействие, влияние

treatment – обработка, очистка

containment – сдерживание

tofocus (on) - сосредоточиваться; концентрироваться

mishap – неполадка, несчастный случай

depletion – уменьшение, истощение

exhaust – выхлопныегазы
II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what
words in the Russian language help you to guess their meaning:


organism, control, construction, project, management, municipal, regulation, ozone, global, to design, technologies.
III. Make up the word combinations


1.human

a. control

2. polluted

b. depletion

3. environmental

c. habitation

4. pollution

d. sites

5. treatment

e. expertise

6. acid

f. exhausts

7. global

g. engineering

8. ozone

h. system

9. automobile

I. rain

10. technical

j. warming




      1. State to what parts of speech the following words belong:

application, engineering, healthy, polluted, proposed, significance, knowledge, environmental, municipal, pollution, engineer, specialized.

      1. Find synonyms in the list of words:

impact, often, to project, study, to improve, global, investigation, defect, effect, to perfect, mishap, frequently, worldwide, to design.
VI. a) Form adverbs adding the suffix -en to the given adjectives,
translate them:


Example: frequent — частый

frequently — часто

Usual, quick, close, peaceful, cheap, frank,successful, global, industrial.

b)Form nouns adding the suffix – ion, -tion to the gienvervs. Translate them into Russian:

Example: to pollute – загрязнять

pollution – загрязнение

to expect, to produce, to exclude, to permit, to suggest, to combine.

Studythe followingtext. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites.

Environmental engineering involves water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects.

Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies to evaluate the significance of such hazards, advise on treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps. Environmental engineers also design municipal water supply and industrialwastewater treatment systems as well as address local and worldwide environmental issues such as the effects of acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, water pollution and air pollution from automobile exhausts and industrial sources. At many universities, Environmental Engineering programs follow either the Department of Civil Engineering or The Department of Chemical Engineering at Engineering faculties. Environmental "civil" engineers focus on hydrology, water resources management, bioremediation, and water treatment plant design. Environmental "chemical" engineers, on the other hand, focus on environmental chemistry, advanced air and water treatment technologies and separation processes.

Additionally, engineers are more frequently obtaining specialized training in law (J.D.) and are utilizing their technical expertise in the practices of Environmental engineering law.
I. Say whether the following statements are true or false:

1. The task of environmental engineering is to improve the environment, to provide healthy human habitation and and to remediate polluted sites.

2. Environmental engineering excludes water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues.

3. Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies to evaluate and prevent hazardous faults.

4. Environmental engineers prevent municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems from using.

5. All environmental engineers focus on environmental chemistry, advanced air and water treatment technologies and separation processes.
II. Find in the text English equivalents of the following words:

истощение озона, место обитания, очистительные системы, восстанавливать, загрязнение воды и воздуха, управление водными ресурсами, значение, профессионально-техническая квалификация, проблемы окружающей среды, предотвращать несчастные случаи.
III. Read the text and find answers to the questions:

1. What is environmental engineering?

2. What does environmental engineering involve?

3. What do environmental "civil" engineers focus on?

4. What do environmental "chemical" engineers focus on?
IV. Choose the statement, which expresses the main idea of the text.

  1. types of engineers

  2. aims and application of environmental engineering

  3. the importance of ecology in our life


V. Complete the sentences:

1. Environmental engineering is.....

2. Environmental engineering involves.....

3. Environmental engineers conduct....

4. Environmental engineers design....

5. Environmental Engineering programs follow.....

6. Engineers are frequently obtaining.....
VI. Write an outline of the text.
VII. Summarize the text according to the outline.
Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

sustainable – устойчивый

mitigation – смягчение, уменьшение

legislative – законодательный

adverse – неблагоприятный, вредный

capacity – производительность

wetland - заболоченная территория

potable - годный для питья; питьевой

disease – заболевание

palatable – вкусный

scrubber – газопромыватель

precipitator – фильтр-газоочиститель

volatile – летучий
TEXT

Scope of environmental engineering
Pollutants may be chemical, biological, thermal, radioactive, or even mechanical. Environmental engineering emphasizes several areas: process engineering, environmental chemistry, water and sewage treatment (sanitary engineering), waste reduction/management, and pollution prevention/cleanup. Environmental engineering is a synthesis of various disciplines, incorporating elements from the following: agricultural engineering, biology, chemical engineering, chemistry, civil engineering, ecology, geography, geology, mechanical engineering, public health.

Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to the environment. Some consider environmental engineering to include the development of sustainable processes. There are several divisions of the field of environmental engineering.

In environmental impact assessment and mitigation division engineers and scientists use a systemic identification and evaluation process to assess the potential impacts of a proposed project , plans, programs, policies, or legislative actions upon the physical-chemical, biological, cultural, and socioeconomic components on environmental conditions. They apply scientific and engineering principles to evaluate if there are likely to be any adverse impacts to water quality, air quality, habitat quality, flora and fauna, agricultural capacity, traffic impacts, social impacts, ecological impacts, noise impacts, visual (landscape) impacts, etc. If impacts are expected, they then develop mitigation measures to limit or prevent such impacts. An example of a mitigation measure would be the creation of wetlands in a nearby location to mitigate the filling in of wetlands necessary for a road development if it is not possible to reroute the road.

Engineers and scientists of water supply and treatment devision work to secure water supplies for potable and agricultural use. They evaluate the water balance within a watershed and determine the available water supply, the water needed for various needs in that watershed, the seasonal cycles of water movement through the watershed and they develop systems to store, treat, and convey water for various uses. Water is treated to achieve water quality objectives for the end uses. In the case of potable water supply, water is treated to minimize the risk of infectious disease transmission, the risk of non-infectious illness, and to create a palatable water flavor.

Air quality management engineers apply scientific and engineering principles to the design of manufacturing and combustion processes to reduce air pollutant emissions to acceptable levels. Scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, catalytic converters, and various other processes are utilized to remove particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), reactive organic gases (ROG) and other air pollutants from flue gases and other sources prior to allowing their emission to the atmosphere.

Scientists have developed air pollution dispersion models to evaluate the concentration of a pollutant at a receptor or the impact on overall air quality from vehicle exhausts and industrial flue gas stack emissions.

To some extent, this field overlaps the desire to decrease carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions from combustion processes.
I. Read the text again. Guess the meaning of the words and expressions without a dictionary.

Thermal, synthesis, visual, seasonal cycles, catalytic converters, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, dispersion, greenhouse gas emissions.
II.Complete the sentences:

  1. Pollutants may be...

  2. Environmental engineering is a synthesis...

  3. There are several divisions...

  4. An example of a mitigation measure...

  5. Water is treated to...

  6. Air quality management engineers apply...

  7. Scientists have developed...


III. Write an outline of the text.
IV. Summarize the text according to the outline. Make use of the expressions:

The text points out that …

It focuses on …

The text presents interest for …

It is claimed that …

The paper deals with the problem of …
V. Debate: Students A believe environmental engineering will stop all pollution soon. Students B believe ecological situation will get worse over the next 50 years – to dangerous levels. Debate this with your partners.



  1. Read and remember the following words and word-combinations:

branch – отрасль

interaction – взаимодействие

abundance– изобилие

to escape from – ускользнутьот

insect– насекомое

fate – судьба

to prevent – предотвращать

toplottherightcourse – наметитьправильныйкурс

byallmeans– непременно, обязательно

ratherthan – а, не

environment– окружающая среда

goods – товары потребления

tocauseharm – причинять вред

wiseadvice – мудрый совет

toresemble – походить на

tosacrifice – приносить в жертву

extinction – исчезновение
Study thefollowing text. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:

II. Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what
words in the Russian language help you to guess their meaning:


biology,ecology, organism,mysticism, religion,zoology,ecologist,analyse,planet,biologist, botanist, activist,nature,atmosphere,physicist,chemist, engineer, problem,intensive,industry, physical, atom, structure, civilization, global, energy, industry, industrial, economic, bomb.
III. Give the initial form of the following words:

followed, developed, academics, produced, looking, expanding, understood, combined, guided, applied, aimed, given, geographers, said, atomic, rapidly, polluting.

IV.State to what parts of speech the following words belong:
definition, abundance, physical, rapidly, department, decisive, scientists, computer, environmental,designer, structure, erosion, significant, industrial, growth, economic.
V.Formverbs adding the suffix –en to the given adjectives,
translate them:


Model: fast — твердый

to fasten — затвердевать

bright, dark, sharp, wide, less, broad, deep, short, weak, hard.
Text

What does ecology mean?
Academics define ecology as a special branch within biology. Textbook definitions use phrases like “scientific study of the interactions that determine the abundance and distribution of organisms.” But bookshops often place their ecology shelves next to “Religion and Mysticism, not botany and Zoology”.

If you describe yourself as an ecologist in conversations outside a biology department you will often be understood as saying you are an activist. Sometimes it seems simpler to call yourself a biologist or a botanist rather than to argue about what “ecologist” means.

Whatever ecology textbooks may say ecology is one of these words that has escaped from academic cage of definitions.

But if we analyse the origin of the word “ecology” we shall understand that it comes from Greek “oikos” which means “home”. Many scientists consider that the idea of “home” includes the whole planet of ours: its population, nature, animals, birds, fish, insects, all living beings and even the atmosphere around our planet.

However something is wrong with our home. The life and fate of the planet are now in danger. According to Acad. N. Moiseyev, human society nowadays resembles a ship which finds itself before a reef barrier and is looking for a way out. The captain does not yet know the road to safety but all his actions are aimed at one thing – to prevent disaster.

How shall we plot the right course? Perhaps we should be guided by science studying the state of our environment as a whole? As not only biologists and geographers, but mathematicians, physicists, chemists, designers and engineers gather under its roof today.

Mankind long believed that, whatever we did, the Earth would remain much the same. We know now that it is not true. Nature is under the threat. One country’s pollution can be every country’s problem. So we all need to work together to safeguard our environment. We have a moral duty to look after our planet and hand it on in a good order to future generations. We should always remember the wise advice of a great English writer John Galthworthy who said: “if you don’t think about the future, you will not have it”.

The intensive development of sciences, industry and chemistry has made the pollution of our environment a global problem. That does not mean trying to halt economic growth. We need growth to give us the means to live better and healthier lives. We must not sacrifice our future well-being for short-term gains, nor pile up environmental debts which will burden our children. We have to take great care where there are real threats to our planet. Awful harm is caused to our home by nuclear tests, atom bombs and accidents at the atomic power stations.

By burning forests, draining wetlands, polluting water basins mankind is rapidly driving many species to extinction. It`s high time to start solving these global problems.
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