“Company’s Profile” “Компания, в которой я работаю”

“Company’s Profile” “Компания, в которой я работаю”


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ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ ВСЕХ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ (ГРУППЫ 102, 108 – 113, 116 – 119, 120 – 123, ЭТз – 11, ЭЭз – 11, ЭТз – 11, 12, 13) НА III СЕМЕСТР
Для сдачи экзамена студентам ЗФ технических специальностей предлагается выполнение следующих заданий:

  1. Контрольная работа №3 – выполнение одного из пяти вариантов; первый текст не переводится - по тексту выполняются задания со II-V, задания с VI-VIII – грамматические, письменный перевод текста в задании X. Вариант выбирается по последней цифре шифра студента.

(1, 2 – вариант № 1; 3,4 - вариант № 2; 5, 6 - вариант № 3; 7, 8 – вариант № 4; 9,0 – вариант № 5)

  1. Перевод пяти предлагаемых текстов с листа.

  2. Тема: “Company’s Profile” – “Компания, в которой я работаю”

  3. Перевод текста, предлагаемого экзаменатором.

Защита контрольных работ и перевода технических текстов проводится по расписанию во время сессии и в течение семестра по четвергам с 17.05 - 20.00. Тексты переводятся с листа: a) Вы читаете текст на английском языке, затем его переводите, глядя на английский вариант текста. Разрешается пользоваться, составленным вами словарем по предложенным текстам.

N.B. Просьба распечатать контрольные работы и тексты, помещенные в личные кабинеты и принести их на зачет.

1) 5 текстов на перевод с листа:
TEXT 1 CARBON NANOTUBES
In the last years there has been an increasing interest in nanoscience, basically to understand the behavior of structures with sizes close to atomic dimensions. Even when many nanostructures are currently under investigation, the area of nanotubes is one of the most active. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present one of the simplest chemical composition and atomic bonding configuration. Since their discovery in 1991 by Jijima, carbon nanotubes have been the target of numerous investigations due to their unique structural, electronic and mechanical properties.

There are two groups of nanotubes, multi-wall (MWCNTs) and single-wall (SWCNTs) carbon nanotubes. MWCNTs can be visualized as closed graphite tubules with multiple layers of graphite sheet defining a hole typically from 2 to 25 nm separated by a distance of approximately 0.34 nm. SWCNTs are real single large molecules.

It is important to define the chiral vector of nanotubes Ch, which is given by Ch =na1=5 a2, where a1 and a2 are unit vectors in the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and n and m are integers. The ends of the chiral vector meet each other when the graphene sheet is rolled up to form the cylinder. According to this, tubes of different diameters and helical arrangements of hexagons can arise by changing the values of n and m. In other words, depending on the values of n and m it is possible to have different nanotube structures. In fact, depending on how the two-dimensional grapheme sheet is rolled up, there are three types of carbon nanotubes, armchair, zigzag and chiral. Armchair nanotubes are formed when n=m, and the chiral angle is 300. Zigzag nanotubes are formed when either n or m is zero and the chiral angle is 00. The combination of size, structure and topology give CNTs important mechanical properties such as high stability, strength and stiffness, low density and elastic deformability with interesting surface properties. These electronic properties open the doors to a wide range of fascinating electronic applications.
dimension – размер

carbon nanotubes (CNT) – углеродные нанотрубки

atomic bonding – атомные связи

multi-wall (MWCNTs) carbon nanotubes – многостенные углеродные нанотрубки

single-wall (SWCNTs) carbon nanotubes – одностенные углеродные нанотрубки

approximately – приблизительно

two-dimensional hexagonal lattice – двумерная гексагональная (шестиугольная) кристаллическая решетка

helical – спиралевидный, винтовой

chiral vector – киральный вектор (вектор скручивания)

TEXT II
APPLICATION OF AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS IN UNDUSTRY
Manufacturing is one of the most important application areas for automation technology. There are several types of automation in manufacturing.

  1. Fixed automation, refers to automated machines in which the equipment configuration allows fixed sequence of processing operations. These machines are programmed to make only certain processing operations. They can’t easily switch from one product type to another. This form of automation needs high initial investments and high production rates. That’s why it is suitable for products that are made in large volumes. Examples of fixed automation are machining transfer lines in automobile industry, automatic assembly machines and certain chemical processes.

  2. Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing products in large quantities ranging from several dozen to several thousand units at a time. For each new product the production equipment must be reprogrammed and changed over. This reprogramming and changeover take a period of non-productive time. Production rates in programmable automation are generally lower than in fixed automation, because the equipment is designed to facilitate product changeover rather than for product specialization. A numerical-control machine tool is a good example of programmable automation. The program is coded in computer memory for each different product type and the machine tool is also controlled by the computer program.

  3. Flexible automation is a kind of programmable automation. Programmable automation requires time to reprogram and change over the production equipment for each series of a new product. This is lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation the number of products is limited, so the changeover of the equipment can be done very quickly and automatically by means of the computer. Flexible automation allows different products to be produced one right after another.


fixed automation – жесткая автоматизация, предполагающая выполнение операций в фиксированной/заданной последовательности

fixed sequence – заданная последовательность

initial investments – начальные инвестиции, вклады

production rate – темп производства

transfer lines – передаточные/транспортные производственные линии

assembly line – сборочный конвейер/линия

changeover – переключение, перенастройка

a numerical-control machine – станок с числовым программным управлением/станок с ЧПУ

flexible automation – гибкая автоматизация

TEXT III
SOLAR THERMAL TOWER PLANT (SOLAR ONE)

Solar one, which operated from 1992 to 2000, was the world’s largest power tower plant. In that plant water was converted to steam in the receiver and used directly to power a conventional steam turbine. The project met most of its technical objectives by demonstrating (1) the feasibility of generating power with a power tower, (2) the ability to generate 10MWe for eight hours at summer solstice and four hours a day at winter solstice. During its final year of operation, Solar One’s availability during hours of sunshine was 96% and its annual efficiency was about 7%. (Annual efficiency was relatively low because of the plant’s small size.) The Solar One thermal storage system stored heat from solar-produced steam in a tank filled with rocks and sand using oil as a heat transfer fluid. The system extended the plant’s power capability at night and provided heat for keeping parts of the plant warm during off-hours and for morning start up.

Unfortunately, the storage system was complex and thermodynamically inefficient. While Solar One successfully demonstrated power tower technology, it also revealed the disadvantages of a water/steam system, such as the intermittent operation of the turbine due to clouds and lack of effective thermal storage.

To encourage the development of molten-salt towers, a consortium of utilities redesigned the Solar One plant to include a molten-salt heat transfer system. The goals of the redesigned plant, called Solar Two, are to validate nitrate salt technology, to reduce the technical and economic risk of power towers, and to stimulate commercialization of power tower technology. Solar Tower has produced 10 MW of electricity with enough thermal storage to continue to operate the turbine at full capacity for three hours after the sun has set. Long-term reliability is next to be proven. Solar Two was the first to be attached to a grid in early 2001.
solar thermal power plant – тепловая электростанция, работающая на солнечной энергии/солнечная тепловая электростанция

conventional – обычный, традиционный

feasibility – осуществимость, возможность выполнения, выполнимость

to generate power – производство энергии

off-hours – нерабочее время, простой

start up – разгонять, запускать

disadvantages – недостатки

intermittent operation – прерывистая работа, перемежающийся режим работы

consortium of utilities – коммунальное хозяйство, комплекс

molten-salt – расплавленная соль

a grid – энергетическая система, сеть

TEXT IV
PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
Density is the amount of mass per unit volume. It is measured in kilograms per cubic meter. The density of water is 1000 kg/m3, but most material have higher density and sink in water. Aluminium alloys, with typical densities around 2800 kg/m3, are considerably less dense than steel, which has typical density around 7800 kg/m3. Density is important in any application where the material must not be heavy.

Stiffness (rigidity) is a measure of resistance to deformation such as stretching or bending. The Young modulus is a measure of resistance to simple stretching or compression. It is the ratio of the applied force per unit area (stress) to the fractional elastic deformation (strain). Stiffness is important when a rigid structure is to be made.

Strength is the force per unit area (stress) that a material can support without failing. The units are the same as those of stiffness, MN/m2, but in this case deformation is irreversible. The yield strength is the stress at which a material deforms plastically. For a metal the yield strength may be less than the fracture strength, which is the stress at which it breaks. Many materials have a higher strength in compression than tension.

Ductility is the ability of the material to deform without breaking. One of the great advantages of metals is their property to be formed into the shape that is needed, such as car body parts. Materials that are not ductile are brittle.

Toughness is the resistance of the material to breaking when there is a crack in it. For a material of given toughness, the stress at which it will fail is inversely proportional to the square root of the size of the largest defect. Brittle materials have low toughness: glass can be broken along a chosen line by first scratching it with diamond. Composites have considerably greater toughness than their constituent materials. The example of a very tough composite is a fiberglass that is very flexible and strong.

density – плотность

amount – количество

resistance to – устойчивость к

stiffness (rigidity) – жесткость

irreversible – необратимый

yield strength – предел текучести

stress – напряжение, давление

fracture strength – сопротивление излому/разрушению

ductility – ковкость

brittle – ломкий, хрупкий

toughness – прочность, стойкость

constituent – компонент, составляющая часть, элемент
TEXT V

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTERNET
In 1958, the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) had the idea of linking a small number of computers together so that their programming facilities could be shared by their users. The resulting computer network was called the ARPANET and it was used by experts. As this network expended, however, it began to experience problems in transferring the ever increasing volume of information, or data, which was being generated. By the 1960s, the controllers of the network had solved the problem by breaking up the information to be transferred into packets that could be routed to the destination computer. The process was known as packet switching.

By the 1970s, the ARPANET had grown further to include the computers situated in a large number of universities and scientific establishments. These computers, however, had different operating systems running different programming languages. It was essential that before any machine could be connected to the network it could be programmed to obey a common set of rules for the transmission and reception of data. These rules became known as protocols.

There were two main uses of the ARPANET at this time: one was Telnet which enabled scientist to run their programs and more powerful computers located elsewhere, and the other was e-mail. E-mail allowed scientists an efficient and easy way of communication and this soon meant that e-mail dominated the use of the network.

Also in the 1070s, a user-friendly operating called UNIX allowed writing software and building simple modems that enabled their computers to link up through the telephone network. Thus, anyone with the appropriate equipment could access the databases and facilities of the ARPANET through telephone lines. As a result, a user’s information network, called USENET, was established.

By the early 1980s, USENET groups and individuals were making so much independent use of the ARPANET that the operators relinquished control and allowed the system to become the Internet. The Internet is an interconnection of networks, which are linked together by backbones.
programming facilities – программные средства

packet switching – пакетная коммутация

scientific establishments – научные учреждения

reception of data – получение данных

powerful – мощный

software – программное обеспечение

to relinquish – оставлять, отказываться

backbone – основная, главная магистраль


2) Устная тема : COMPANY'S PROFILE – Компания, в которой я работаю

Цель: Описать тип, структуру, специализацию, стратегию и политику проводимую компанией. Указать основные вехи в истории развития компании. Использовать материал в заданиях I и II.
I Прочитайте и переведите текст (устно), содержащий информацию о типах и структуре компаний. Выучите слова, выделенные жирным шрифтом и используемые для описания деятельности компаний. Пользуйтесь материалом в заданиях I и II для выполнения задания III.

Текст А
Vocabulary

to be involved in – участвовать

to operate in – работать, функционировать

a range – ряд, диапазон, ассортимент

manufacture/ manufacturer/ to manufactureпроизводство, производитель, производить

production/producer/ to produce – производство, производитель, производить

primary industry – добывающая промышленность

secondary industry – производственный сектор

tertiary industry – непроизводственный сектор экономики, предоставляющий услуги

mining companies – добывающие компании

provide services - предоставлять услуги

multinationals – международные, транснациональные компании

subsidiary – дочерняя компания
Companies are involved in many activities for example buying, selling, marketing and production. They operate in a range of different industries such as information technology, telecommunication, film and car manufacture.

There are 3 main types or groups of companies belonging to three different sectors of economy: primary, secondary and tertiary industry. The companies which belong to the primary sector of industry are mining companies they only collect or extract raw materials that exist in nature, for example oil/gas/coal/gold extracting companies. The companies belonging to the secondary sector of industry are manufacturers producing goods, for example automobiles, computers, clothes, food products. The companies which don’t produce goods but provide services (such as : trade, banking, insurance, traveling, educational institutions) belong to the tertiary sector of industry.)

Many well- known companies are multinationals which operate in a number of countries and have a complicated structure. They are usually parent or holding companies which own other companies or parts of companies. These companies are called subsidiaries.
II a)Прочитайте краткие сообщения о деятельности компании.
1. DHL is an international air-express carrier. It delivers packages and documents round the world.

2 British Airways is an international airline which carries over 28 million passengers each year.

3 Sony is a Japanese company, specializing in producing consumer electronics.

4 Shell Oil is an oil drilling company.

b) Дайте письменные ответы на поставленные вопросы.

1. Is the company multinational?

2 Does it have any subsidiaries abroad? If you know, say how many.

3. What sector of industry does the company refer to?
c)Пользуйтесь следующими фразами-клише для описания деятельности компании:

1 The company is multinational. It operates in 20 countries.

2. The company specializes in/ concentrates on producing cars.

3 The company started/set up subsidiaries in China and India.

4. Mining/oil drilling/ oil extracting company

5. The company provides/offers services such as…….
ТЕКСТ В

  1. Прочитайте и переведите тексты (устно), содержащие информацию об истории развития компании. Выучите слова, выделенные жирным шрифтом и используемые для описания ключевых событий. В данном случае используются “sequencers” т.е. слова, указывающие на последовательность событий:




first first of all firstly

second secondly

then after that afterwards next

lastly finally now/ today


Vocabulary

experience – опыт

the key dates – ключевые/основные даты

events - события

own – владеть

to merge/ merger – образовывать путем слияния/ слияние

to take over – захватывать, вступать во владение чужим имуществом

headquarters – головной офис

to launch – запускать, начинать производить

to expand – расширяться

to run the company/monitor – управлять компанией

competition/competitors/ competes with – конкуренция/ кокурент/конкурировать

Personnel or Human Resources Department – отдел кадров

Research and Development (R&D) – научно-исследовательский отдел

established – авторитетный, заслуживший доверие

the Board of Directors – совет директоров
Company History

Companies often include details about their history in order to show that they are established and have experience in their field. In their marketing literature and reports the include information about the founder, the key dates and events
Skoda

First of all Vaclav Laurin and Vaclav Klement produced bicycles and then small motorcycles.

Then, in 1905, Laurin and Klement’s company started to produce motor vehicles. They merged with Skoda in 1925. Afterwards Skoda produced quality and famous motor vehicles, including the “Hispano-Suiza”. Then, after the war, when communists took control over Czechoslovakia, Scoda launched into production basic and functional vehicles. Next Volkswagen obtained a 30% share in Skoda and full management control of the company. Skoda was taken over by Volkswagen. Now Skoda is 70% owned by Volkswagen.
c) Пользуйтесь следующими фразами-клише для описания основных моментов в деятельности компании, определивших ее рост и развитие (задание III):

1 The founder of the company was ….

2. The company was founded/established/set up/ started ……..

3. The company set up new divisions/ department/ subsidiaries/ research laboratories…..

4. The company is located in China. The company’s headquarters are located in Moscow, Russia

5. The company launched a new product…..

6. to expand production, market, the range of products

7. The president runs the company. The company is run/headed by the Board of Directors ….

8 The companies merged

9 One company took over/acquired another company

10 The company has many competitors/ competes with …….

11. The company usually consists of seven departments: a. Marketing b. Public Relations

c. Information Technology (IT) d. Personnel or Human Resources e. Finance

f. Production g. Research and Development (R&D)
d) Тема Составьте Companys Profile”, т. е. описание компании, в которой вы хотите работать или уже работаете местной или международной в соответствии с планом, используйте слова и выражения в заданиях I и II:

1 The year of foundation. The founder’s name.

2 The company’s location. Headquarters location.

3. The company’s specialization. The type of the company ( the industrial sector )

4 The company’s structure. The number of subsidiaries (if it has)

5. The main company’s competitors

6 The range of products or services the company provides.

7 The dates of launching new products.

8. Who runs the company?

9 The number of departments.

10 The company’s creed.

11 The position you take with the company. Your duties.

3) Контрольная работа №3 (III семестр); выполнение одного варианта из пяти. Комментарии по выполнению контрольных работ смотри выше.

Контрольная работа № 3

по английскому языку для студентов всех технических специальностей

заочного отделения
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