Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку Предисловие




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Н.В.Коноплева, А.Р.Каюмова, Л.И.Фомина

KAZAN (VOLGA REGION) FEDERAL UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF PHILOLOGY AND ARTS

DEPARTMENT OF ROMANCE AND GERMANIC PHILOLOGY


Preparing for the exam in English
Manual for learners

of English
KAZAN 2012
КАЗАНСКИЙ (ПРИВОЛЖСКИЙ) ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ИНСТИТУТ ФИЛОЛОГИИ И ИСКУССТВ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

Настоящая учебно-методическая разработка предназначена для студентов IV курса очного и заочного отделений филологического факультета. Целью является помочь студентам подготовиться к сдаче экзамена по иностранному языку.

Готовимся к экзамену по английскому языку
Учебно-методическое пособие

по английскому языку

Предисловие

Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов IV курса очного и заочного отделений, завершающих изучение английского языка по программе бакалавриата. Его цель – помочь студентам подготовиться к сдаче экзамена по английскому языку. Предлагаемое пособие состоит из двух частей. В первой части представлены основные требования и практические рекомендации к каждому этапу экзамена: письменному, который включает в себя перевод лингвистического текста; и устному – пересказ и анализ газетной статьи, а также высказывание по заданной теме.

Вторая часть - лексико-грамматические тесты, направленные на контроль и закрепление новой лексики и грамматических явлений уроков I-XV «Практического курса английского языка для студентов-филологов».

Данное руководство ставит своей задачей формирование навыков самостоятельной подготовки студентов к сдаче экзамена, что является необходимым требованием в условиях перехода системы образования к новым стандартам.


SECTION I

Государственный экзамен по иностранному (английскому) языку для студентов очного и заочного отделений состоит из письменной и устной части.

Письменная часть представляет собой перевод отрывка из лингвистического текста со словарем. Объем текста определяет преподаватель в зависимости от уровня студента. Перевод наиболее сложных слов и выражений дается в экзаменационном билете в конце текста для перевода. Перевод не должен быть буквальным, должен точно передать смысл оригинала и стиль. Приведем пример отрывка:

The definition of a proverb given in The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English is as good as any: a ‘popular short saying, with words of advice or warning’. Yet it is far from enabling us to identify a proverb with any certainty. Is any widely used short saying a proverb? The important word seems to be ‘popular’. But how popular must a saying be to become a proverb? The line must evidently be drawn somewhere. We suggest that in the real sense of the word it must be thoroughly ‘of the people’. It follows from this that it will usually be an old saying, since it is unlikely to become part of the popular consciousness in a short period of time. There are of course exceptions, and some proverbs jump into the popular mind with unusual rapidity, though we should have to exclude the purely transient catch-phrase like ‘I couldn’t care less’ or ‘What’s the odds?’

The definition might have said ‘a short wise saying’, but presumably this was thought unnecessary as the word ‘saying’, when used in this way, implies wisdom. For wisdom is the other main ingredient of the proverb. To become popular it must at least appear outstandingly wise; to remain popular it must in truth contain enduring wisdom. That having been said, however, the fact remains that some wise sayings have become proverbs, while others equally wise have not; they have been lost or they have remained merely occasional quotations.

To become a proverb, a saying has to be taken up and assimilated by the common people. In the process, its origin is forgotten. In many cases this must have been as nearly literally true as makes no odds. In the numerous proverbs that summarize everyday experience, the saying probably did grow gradually into its proverbial form without any one single originator. Make hay while the sun shines, with its origin in farm work, is a case in point.

Устная часть экзамена включает два задания:

  1. Высказывание по определенной теме. Студенты готовят высказывания по указанным темам самостоятельно в течение учебного года, консультируясь с преподавателем.

  2. Анализ газетной статьи. Анализ подразумевает краткий пересказ содержания (не менее 10 предложений) и высказывание собственного мнения по статье.

TOPICS
I. Нижеприведенные вопросы помогут логично построить высказывание по темам. На каждый из десяти вопросов составьте 3-5 предложений-ответов. Грамматические конструкции, приведенные после вопросов необходимо использовать в своем рассказе. Список пословиц сделает Вашу речь более насыщенной и живой. Постарайтесь включить несколько пословиц.
Topic 1 “My speciality’’
1. Why did you choose our university?

2. What can you say about the history of our university?

3. Can you name some famous people who studied or worked in our university?

4. Why did you choose philology? Was it a spontaneous decision?

5. What qualities are essential to study philology?

6. Which subjects were among your favorite ones at university?

7. What is the topic of your diploma work? Say a few words about it.

8. What are the most pleasant moments in your university life?

9. What are you going to do after your graduation?

10. If you had a possibility to spend a year working in another country, which country would you choose? Why?
Grammar: past tenses: simple, continuous, perfect; comparatives and superlatives; future forms: going to; first conditional and future time clauses+when, until, etc.; second conditional.

Topic 2 “Russia”

1. What do you know about the geographical position of Russia?

2. Is Russia rich in natural resources? Which ones?

3. What can you say about the climate of Russia?

4. What can you say about the population of Russia?

5. Is Russia a rural or urban country? Where do you live (a village, town or city)?

6. Which cities can be named the “capitals” (first, second, third, etc.) of Russia? Why?

7. What can you say about the political system of the Russian Federation?

8. What historical facts make you feel proud of your country?

9. Which period of our history would you go to if you had a time-machine? Why?

10. How can Russia become the most progressive and influential country in the world?

Grammar: passive voice; infinitives; articles and nouns with and without the; comparatives and superlatives; first conditional; quantifiers.
Topic 3 “Tatarstan”

1. What do you know about the geographical position and climate of Tatarstan?

2. Is Tatarstan rich in natural resources? Which ones?

3. What can you say about the population of Tatarstan?

4. What can you say about the political system of Tatarstan?

5. What are the biggest cities of Tatarstan?

6. Which places in Tatarstan can you recommend to visit?

7. What would you show to tourists in Kazan if you were a guide?

8. Say a few words about famous Tatar poets, composers and artists.

9. What are the national holidays of Tatarstan?

10. What can you say about Tatar cuisine? What is your favourite dish?

Grammar: passive voice; infinitives; articles and nouns with and without the; comparatives and superlatives; first conditional; quantifiers.
Topic 4 “Great Britain”

1. What do you know about the geographical position of Great Britain?

2. Is Great Britain rich in natural resources? Which ones? What can you say about the country’s agriculture?

3. What can you say about the climate of Great Britain?

4. What can you say about the population of Great Britain?

5. What specific features of the British character do you know?

6. What can you say about the political system of Great Britain?

7. Great Britain is famous for its system of education. Can you name the most famous universities?

8. Imagine that you are going to the Great Britain this summer. What places would you like to visit? Describe them.

9. What would you like to visit in the capital of Great Britain?

10. Can you name the most famous British writers? Who is your favourite?
Grammar: passive voice; infinitives; articles and nouns with and without the; comparatives and superlatives; first conditional; quantifiers.
Topic 5 “The system of education: Russia and Great Britain”

1. What are the similarities between systems of education in Russia and Great Britain?

2. Compare the subjects studied in secondary schools in Russia and Great Britain. What is similar and what is different?

3. Every pupil likes holidays. Compare Russian and British school holidays. Which of them would you prefer?

4. What are the differences between state and private schools in Great Britain? Are there any private schools in Russia?

5. What should you do to prepare yourself for university in Great Britain? Is it the same in Russia?

6. What are the main universities in Russia?

7. What are the main universities in UK?

8. Why do foreign students choose Russia or UK to get higher education?

9. What do you think about the innovations in our education system reforms in our system of education?

10. Describe an ideal university. How would it look like?
Grammar: must, have to, should (obligation); can, could, be able to (ability and possibility); structures after wish; clauses of contrast and purpose.
Topic 6 “Customs and traditions: Russia and Great Britain”

1. What public holidays are celebrated in Russia?

2. What public holidays are celebrated in Great Britain?

3. What is the most popular holiday in Russia? What do you know about it?

4. What is the most popular holiday in Great Britain? How is it celebrated?

5. Why do people remember old customs and traditions?

6. Are there any new customs and traditions nowadays?

7. What do you think about accepting western holidays and traditions?

8. What is your favourite Russian holiday? Why?

9. What is your favourite western holiday? Why?

10. Have you got any family traditions?
Grammar: passive: be+ past participle; clauses of contrast and purpose; gerund and infinitives.
Topic 7 “My favourite author”


1. Who was your favourite author in your childhood? Who read you his/her books?

2. Who is your favourite author now? Tell a few words about his/her biography.

3. What can you say about his/her creative work?

4. When and how did you get to know this author?

5. Which of his/her books did you read first?

6. How can you describe the author’s style?

7. What is your favourite book written by him/her? Tell a few words about its plot.

8. Which character in the book is your favourite?

9. It is said that our opinion about the book changes in the course of life. Has it happened to you? If yes, in what way?

10. Do you have any scientific works connected with this author?
Grammar: relative clauses: defining and non-defining; used to, be used to, get used to; comparatives and superlatives.
Topic 8 “My unforgettable holiday”

1. Are you a stay-at-home person or journey-lover?

2. How do you prefer to travel (by train, by car, etc.)? Why?

3. What climate is the best choice for you?

4. Do you prefer sightseeing holidays, holidays at the sea side or active holidays (e.g. skiing resorts)?

5. Have you ever traveled abroad? What country would you like to visit?

6. Tell us about an unforgettable holiday? Where and when did you go? Who did you go with?

7. Where did you stay? Did you like the place?

8. What did you do during the day?

9. What did you do at night?

10. Did you have any problems? If not, what problems can spoil the trip?
Grammar: gerunds and infinitives; narrative tenses; so/such…that;
Topic 9 “Food”

1. Is food a pleasure or fuel for you?

2. What do you normally eat in a typical day?

3. Do you ever cook?

4. Do you ever eat unhealthy food? Do you worry about it?

5. Are you trying to cut down on anything at the moment? Why (not)?

6. Are people’s diets in Russia getting better or worse?

7. What is your favourite dish?

8. Did you use to like some food in your childhood that you don’t like now?

9. Have you ever eaten some exotic dish? Do you like unusual dishes? Are you conservative?

10. What national cuisine do you prefer (Russian, Tatar, French, etc.)? Why?
Grammar: used to+ infinitive; comparatives and superlatives; the…the…+comparatives; uncountable and plural nouns.
Topic 10 “My ideal future”

1. What are going to do after your graduation from University?

2. What job would you like to have?

3. What is more important: to climb the career ladder or to have a successful marriage? Why?

4. Are you married? If yes, please, tell about your wedding ceremony. If not, imagine it.

5. Would you like to have a big family (with many children)? Explain your answer.

6. If you have a child what name will you give him or her? Do you prefer traditional or exotic names for babies?

7. How do you see your future house? Would you like to live in a flat or in your own house?

8. Would you like to have a pet in your future house? Why (not)?

9. What should you do now to get this ideal future?

10. If you had a million dollars, what would you do?
Grammar: to be going+infinitive; first conditional and future time clauses+when, until, etc.; second conditional.

Proverbs.

  1. It is never too late to learn (Учиться никогда не поздно).

  2. No pains, no gains (Без труда не выловишь и рыбку из пруда).

  3. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today (Никогда не откладывай на завтра то, что можешь сделать сегодня).

  4. Where there’s a will, there’s a way (Где есть желание, там есть и путь. Где хотенье, там и уменье).

  5. Bind the sack before it be full (Во всем знай меру).

  6. Every country has its customs (У каждой страны свои обычаи).

  7. So many countries, so many customs (Сколько стран, столько и обычаев).

  8. To carry coals to Newcastle (Ездить в Тулу со своим самоваром).

  9. When at Rome, do as Romans do (В чужой монастырь со своим уставом не ходят).

  10. East or West, home is best (В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше).

  11. There is no place like home (Родной дом – самое лучшее место).

  12. An Englishman’s home is his castle (Дом англичанина – его крепость).

  13. Tastes differ (О вкусах не спорят).

  14. The busiest man finds the most leisure (Самый занятой человек находит больше всего досуга).

  15. Every man has his hobby-horse (У всякого свой конек).

  16. Live and learn (Век живи и век учись).

  17. The appetite comes with eating (Аппетит приходит во время еды).

  18. Don’t live to eat, but eat to live (Не жить, чтобы есть, а есть чтобы жить).

  19. One man’s meat is another man’s poison (Что для одного еда, то для другого яд).

  20. The proof of the pudding is in the eating (Чтобы узнать, каков пуддинг, надо его отведать; все проверяется практикой).

  21. Life is not all beer and skittles (Жить прожить – не поле перейти).

  22. Stolen fruit is sweetest (Запретный плод сладок).

  23. Quick at meat quick at work (Кто быстро ест, тот быстро работает).

  24. Man proposes (but) God disposes (Человек предполагает, а Бог располагает).

  25. As you brew, so must you drink (Что посеешь, то и пожнешь).


II. Данные выражения помогут студентам лаконично пересказать газетную статью и высказать свое мнение по проблеме:


The paper is devoted to….

At first the author points out that…..

Next the author tries to…; explains that…...; pays attention to….

In addition the author emphasizes that…

It is evident that…

It should be noted that…

It is reported that…

The paper comes to the conclusion that….

Finally, the author concludes that…

In summary, we can say that…




PersonalPointofView




As far as I’m concerned,…the most important quality for a friend is loyalty.

In my opinion / view,… education should be free for all.

From my point of view,… extreme sports should be banned.

I think / I don’t think (that)… watching TV is a waste of time.

I believe (that)… mass tourism is a threat for local communities.

Personally, I think (that)… shopping centres are useful.

To my mind,…everyone should do at least one sport.

I’m sure (that)… we can help the environment.

To be honest (with you),… young people have too much freedom.

I maintain (that)…(formal) animal testing is immoral.



Clarifying Personal Point of View




By this I mean…
To be more precise…
That is to say…




Agreeing with the Opinion of the Author




The author is (absolutely) right.

I (completely/totally) agree with the author.

The author of the article says that…. I think so too.

The author of the article says that…. That’s true.

The author of the article says that…. That’s right.




Disagreeing with the Opinion of the Author




I (completely) disagree with the author, because…

I’m afraid I can’t agree with the author, because…

I don’t think that the author’s point of view is true/correct/right.

The author of the article says that…. However, I don’t think so.

I agree to some extent, but…

I partially agree, but…

There might be some truth in that, but…

I see his/her point, but…


Приведем пример статьи (перевод 5-7 выражений дается в экзаменационном билете):

Parents 'want child gene tests'

Parents believe the benefits of testing their children for the genetic risk of some diseases outweigh the negative consequences, according to US scientists. In the study, published in the journal Pediatrics, parents who were offered a genetic test supported their children also being tested. The authors say doctors and politicians need to be more aware of the issue.

Genewatch UK said children should never be tested for adult conditions. Genetic testing used to be confined to specialist clinics, but direct-to-consumer testing is now possible. People send a sample to a company in the post and are told if they have any genes which carry an increased risk of illness.

Genetic test

In this study, 219 parents were tested for 15 genetic variants linked to heart disease, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and colon, skin and lung cancer. They were then asked a series of questions to compare benefits such as reassurance, knowledge and prevention, with risks such as invasion of privacy and psychological discomfort. The report found that "parents offered the genetic susceptibility test for common preventable conditions tended to consider that the potential benefits of this test for their own child could outweigh its risks". Professor Kenneth Tercyak, from the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, said: "These tests usually don't offer a clean bill of health and can be hard to interpret even in the best scenario."

Helen Wallace, from genetic science lobby group Genewatch UK, said: "Online gene tests frequently give misleading results because most common conditions such as cancer, obesity or diabetes are not predicable from a person's genes, except in special circumstances. "Children should not be tested for risk of adult-onset conditions, full stop. They should be allowed to decide for themselves, with medical advice, when they are grown up." Dr Vivienne Nathanson, director of BMA Professional Activities, said: "We would have concerns about genetic testing being widely available over the internet or off the shelf because parents could find out results without a health professional to help intepret them. They may also find out about genetic abnormalities for which there are no cures, or be caused needless worry. "It is important that parents who find out that their children have a genetic disposition to a particular illness, have counselling in advance so they understand the consequences of the test for their child, other children and themselves." Prof Tercyak said: "The findings of our study should remind clinicians and policy-makers to consider children when regulating genetic tests."


SECTION II
TEST-PAPER

UNIT I

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