Theory of translation




НазваниеTheory of translation
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ТипУчебник
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ZOYA PROSHINA

THEORY OF TRANSLATION

(ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN)

3d edition, revised


Vladivostok

Far Eastern University Press

2008


ББК 81.2-923

П 78

Рецензенты:
В.П.Кочетков, канд. филол. наук, профессор;

Элизабет Стэсиу (языковой редактор), магистр гум. наук, волонтер Корпуса мира

Прошина З.Г.

П 78 ТЕОРИЯ ПЕРЕВОДА (с английского языка на русский и с русского языка на английский): Уч. на англ. яз. – Владивосток: Изд-во Дальневост. ун-та, 2008 (3-е изд., перераб.), 2002 (2-е изд., испр. и перераб.), 1999 (1-е изд.)
ISBN 5-7444-0957-2
Учебник по теории перевода предназначен для студентов переводческих отделений. Созданный на основе типовой программы по переводу, он раскрывает такие разделы, как общая и частная теория перевода; последняя основывается на сопоставлении английского и русского языков.

Может быть рекомендован студентам, преподавателям, переводчикам-практикам и всем тем, кто интересуется вопросами изучения иностранных языков и перевода.


П 4602000000 ББК 81.2-923

180(03)-99

(С) Издательство

Дальневосточного

университета ISBN 5-7444-0957-2 2008


CONTENTS


PART I. GENERAL ISSUES OF TRANSLATION 25

CHAPTER 1. What Is Translation? 25

§ 1. TRANSLATION STUDIES 25

§ 2. SEMIOTIC APPROACH 26

§ 3. COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH 27

§ 4. DIALECTICS OF TRANSLATION 28

§ 5. TRANSLATION INVARIANT 29

§ 6. UNIT OF TRANSLATION 30

Chapter 2. TYPES OF TRANSLATION 30

§ 1. CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA 30

§ 2. MACHINE TRANSLATION 31

§ 3. TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETING 32

§ 4. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION 34

Chapter 3. EVALUATIVE CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSLATION 35

§ 1. ADEQUATE AND EQUIVALENT TRANSLATION 35

§ 2. LITERAL TRANSLATION 36

§ 3. FREE TRANSLATION 37

§ 4. THE CONCEPT OF ‘UNTRANSLATABILITY’ 37

CHAPTER 4. Translation Equivalence 39

§ 1. TYPES OF EQUIVALENCE 39

§ 2. PRAGMATIC LEVEL 39

§ 3. SITUATIONAL LEVEL 40

§ 4. SEMANTIC PARAPHRASE 40

§ 5. TRANSFORMATIONAL EQUIVALENCE 41

§ 6. LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL EQUIVALENCE 41

§ 7. THE LEVELS OF EQUIVALENCE HIERARCHY 42

CHAPTER 5. Ways of Achieving Equivalence 42

§ 1. TYPES OF TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES 42

§ 2. TRANSLATION TRANSCRIPTION 43

§ 3. TRANSLITERATION 44

§ 4. CАLQUE TRANSLATION 46

§ 5. GRAMMAR TRANSFORMATIONS 46

§ 6. LEXICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 48

§ 7. COMPLEX TRANSFORMATIONS 49

CHAPTER 6. Translation Models 50

§ 1. TRANSLATION PROCESS 51

§ 2. SITUATIONAL MODEL OF TRANSLATION 51

§ 3. TRANSFORMATIONAL MODEL OF TRANSLATION 52

§ 4. SEMANTIC MODEL OF TRANSLATION 53

§ 5. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC MODEL OF TRANSLATION 54

PART II. HISTORY OF TRANSLATION 56

Chapter 1. WESTERN TRADITIONS OF TRANSLATION 56

§ 1. TRANSLATION DURING ANTIQUITY 57

§ 2. TRANSLATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES 57

§ 3. RENAISSANCE TRANSLATION 58

§ 4. ENLIGHTENMENT TRANSLATION (17-18th c.) 60

§ 5. TRANSLATION IN THE 19TH CENTURY 61

§ 6. TRANSLATION IN THE 20TH CENTURY 63

Chapter 2. HISTORY OF RUSSIAN TRANSLATION 64

§ 1. OLD RUSSIAN CULTURE AND TRANSLATION 64

§2. TRANSLATION IN THE 18TH CENTURY 65

§ 3. RUSSIAN TRANSLATION IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY 67

§4. TRANSLATION IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY 70

§5. TRANSLATION AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 71

§6. TRANSLATION IN THE 20TH CENTURY 72

PART III. GRAMMAR PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION 74

Chapter 1. FORMAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOURCE TEXT AND TARGET TEXT 74

Source language and target language texts differ formally due to a number of reasons of both objective and subjective character. Objective reasons are caused by the divergence in the language systems and speech models. Subjective reasons can be attributed to the speaker’s choice of a language form. 74

Chapter 2. TRANSLATING FINITE VERB FORMS 75

§1. TRANSLATING TENSE AND ASPECT FORMS 76

§2. TRANSLATING PASSIVE VOICE FORMS 77

§3. TRANSLATING THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD FORMS 79

Chapter 3. TRANSLATING NON-FINITE VERB FORMS 80

§1. TRANSLATING THE INFINITIVE 80

§2. TRANSLATING THE GERUND 82

§3. TRANSLATING THE PARTICIPLE 83

§4. TRANSLATING ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTIONS 84

Chapter 4. TRANSLATING CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS 87

§1. TYPES OF CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS 87

§2. CONSTRUCTIONS WITH CAUSAL VERBS 88

§3. CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE VERBS TO HAVE, TO GET 88

§4. CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH NON-CAUSAL VERBS 89

Chapter 5. TRANSLATING PRONOUNS 90

§1. TRANSLATING PERSONAL PRONOUNS 90

§2. TRANSLATING POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 92

§3. TRANSLATING RELATIVE PRONOUNS 92

§4. TRANSLATING THE PRONOUN ONE 93

§5. TRANSLATING THE PRONOUN КАЖДЫЙ / ВСЕ 94

§6. TRANSLATING PARTITIVE PRONOUNS SOME / ANY 94

§7. TRANSLATING DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 95

Chapter 6. TRANSLATING THE ARTICLE 96

§1. TRANSLATING THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE 96

§2. TRANSLATING THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 97

§3. TRANSLATING THE ZERO ARTICLE 98

Chapter 7. TRANSLATING ATTRIBUTIVE CLUSTERS 99

§1. FEATURES OF THE ATTRIBUTIVE PHRASE 99

§2. TRANSLATING THE ATTRIBUTIVE CLUSTER. 100

Chapter 8. SYNTACTIC CHANGES IN TRANSLATION 102

§1. COMMUNICATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN SENTENCE 102

§2. WORD ORDER CHANGE DUE TO THE FUNCTIONAL SENTENCE PERSPECTIVE 103

§3. SENTENCE PARTITIONING AND INTEGRATION 104

Chapter 9. DIFFERENCE IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN PUNCTUATION 105

§1. PRINCIPLES OF PUNCTUATION IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN 105

§2. DIFFERENCES IN COMMA USAGE 106

§3. USING THE DASH 107

§4. USING QUOTATION MARKS 108

§5. USING THE COLON AND SEMICOLON 108

§6. USING THE ELLIPSES 108

PART IV. SEMANTIC PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION 110

Chapter 1. WORD CHOICE IN TRANSLATION 110

§1. TYPES OF TRANSLATION EQUIVALENTS 110

§2. INTERACTION OF WORD SEMANTIC STRUCTURES 111

§3. WORD CONNOTATION IN TRANSLATION 112

§4. INTRALINGUISTIC MEANING 114

§5. CONTEXUALLY-BOUND WORDS 115

Chapter 2. TRANSLATING REALIA 117

§1. CULTURE-BOUND AND EQUIVALENT-LACKING WORDS 117

§2. TYPES OF CULTURE-BOUND WORDS 117

§3. WAYS OF TRANSLATING CULTURE-BOUND WORDS 119

§4. TRANSLATING PEOPLE’S NAMES 121

§5. TRANSLATING GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS 123

§6. TRANSLATING PUBLISHED EDITIONS 124

§7. TRANSLATING ERGONYMS 125

Chapter 3. TRANSLATING TERMS 126

§1. TRANSLATION FACTORS 126

§2. TRANSLATION TECHNIQUE 128

§3. TERMS IN FICTION AND MAGAZINES 130

Chapter 4. TRANSLATOR’S FALSE FRIENDS 131

Chapter 5. PHRASEOLOGICAL AND METAPHORICAL TRANSLATION 134

§1. METAPHOR AND THE PHRASEOLOGICAL UNIT 134

§2. INTERLINGUAL METAPHORIC TRANSFORMATIONS 135

§3. WAYS OF TRANSLATING IDIOMS 137

§4. CHALLENGES IN TRANSLATING IDIOMS 139

Chapter 6. METONYMICAL TRANSLATION 140

§1. DEFINITIONS 140

§2. LEXICAL METONYMIC TRANSFORMATION 141

§3. PREDICATE TRANSLATION 142

§4. SYNTACTIC METONYMIC TRANSFORMATIONS 143

Chapter 7. ANTONYMIC TRANSLATION 144

§1. DEFINITION 144

§2. CONVERSIVE TRANSFORMATION 145

§3. SHIFTING NEGATIVE MODALITY 145

§4. REASONS FOR ANTONYMIC TRANSLATION 147

Chapter 8. DIFFERENCES IN RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH WORD COMBINABILITY 147

§1. REASONS FOR DIFFERENCES IN WORD COMBINABILITY 147

§2. TRANSLATION OF ADVERBIAL VERBS 149

§3. TRANSLATING CONDENSED SYNONYMS 151

Chapter 9. TRANSLATING NEW COINAGES: DIFFERENCES IN RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH WORD BUILDING 152

§1. COMPOUNDS 152

§2. CONVERSION 154

§3. AFFIXATION 156

§4. ABBREVIATION 158

PART V. PRAGMATIC PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION 162

Chapter 1. TRANSLATION PRAGMATICS 162

§1. CONCEPT OF PRAGMATICS 162

§2. TEXT PRAGMATICS 164

§3. AUTHOR’S COMMUNICATIVE INTENTION 166

§4. COMMUNICATIVE EFFECT UPON THE RECEPTOR 169

§5. TRANSLATOR’S IMPACT 172

Chapter 2. SPEECH FUNCTIONS AND TRANSLATION 173

§1. LANGUAGE AND SPEECH FUNCTIONS 173

§2. INTERPERSONAL FUNCTION AND MODALITY IN TRANSLATION. 174

§3. EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION IN TRANSLATION 179

§4. PHATIC FUNCTION IN TRANSLATION 183

§5. CONATIVE FUNCTION IN TRANSLATION 186

Chapter 3. FUNCTIONAL STYLES AND TRANSLATION 190

§1. FUNCTIONAL STYLE, REGISTER: DEFINITION 190

§2. TRANSLATING SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL STYLE 191

§3. TRANSLATING BUREAUCRATIC STYLE 195

§4. TRANSLATING JOURNALISTIC (PUBLICISTIC) STYLE 198

Chapter 4. RENDERING STYLISTIC DEVICES IN TRANSLATION 202

§1. TRANSLATION OF METAPHORS AND SIMILES 202

§2. TRANSLATION OF EPITHETS 204

§3. TRANSLATION OF PERIPHRASE 206

§4. TRANSLATION OF PUNS 207

§5. TRANSLATION OF ALLUSIONS AND QUOTATIONS 210

Chapter 5. TRANSLATION NORMS AND QUALITY CONTROL OF A TRANSLATION 211

§1. NORMS OF TRANSLATION 211

§2. QUALITY CONTROL OF THE TRANSLATION. 215

Chapter 6. TRANSLATION ETIQUETTE 218

§1. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS, ETIQUETTE, AND PROTOCOL 218

§2. CODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 219

§3. PROTOCOL CEREMONIES 221

APPENDIX 1. 227

Russian-English Transliteration Chart 227

APPENDIX 2. 227

Russian-English-Chinese Transliteration Chart 227

Учебное издание 230

Зоя Григорьевна Прошина 230

Подписано в печать Формат 60х84 1/16 231

PART I. GENERAL ISSUES OF TRANSLATION 25

CHAPTER 1. What Is Translation? 25

§ 1. TRANSLATION STUDIES 25

§ 2. SEMIOTIC APPROACH 26

§ 3. COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH 27

§ 4. DIALECTICS OF TRANSLATION 28

§ 5. TRANSLATION INVARIANT 29

§ 6. UNIT OF TRANSLATION 30

Chapter 2. TYPES OF TRANSLATION 30

§ 1. CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA 30

§ 2. MACHINE TRANSLATION 31

§ 3. TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETING 32

§ 4. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION 34

Chapter 3. EVALUATIVE CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSLATION 35

§ 1. ADEQUATE AND EQUIVALENT TRANSLATION 35

§ 2. LITERAL TRANSLATION 36

§ 3. FREE TRANSLATION 37

§ 4. THE CONCEPT OF ‘UNTRANSLATABILITY’ 37

CHAPTER 4. Translation Equivalence 39

§ 1. TYPES OF EQUIVALENCE 39

§ 2. PRAGMATIC LEVEL 39

§ 3. SITUATIONAL LEVEL 40

§ 4. SEMANTIC PARAPHRASE 40

§ 5. TRANSFORMATIONAL EQUIVALENCE 41

§ 6. LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL EQUIVALENCE 41

§ 7. THE LEVELS OF EQUIVALENCE HIERARCHY 42

CHAPTER 5. Ways of Achieving Equivalence 42

§ 1. TYPES OF TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES 42

§ 2. TRANSLATION TRANSCRIPTION 43

§ 3. TRANSLITERATION 44

§ 4. CАLQUE TRANSLATION 46

§ 5. GRAMMAR TRANSFORMATIONS 46

§ 6. LEXICAL TRANSFORMATIONS 48

§ 7. COMPLEX TRANSFORMATIONS 49

CHAPTER 6. Translation Models 50

§ 1. TRANSLATION PROCESS 51

§ 2. SITUATIONAL MODEL OF TRANSLATION 51

§ 3. TRANSFORMATIONAL MODEL OF TRANSLATION 52

§ 4. SEMANTIC MODEL OF TRANSLATION 53

§ 5. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC MODEL OF TRANSLATION 54

PART II. HISTORY OF TRANSLATION 56

Chapter 1. WESTERN TRADITIONS OF TRANSLATION 56

§ 1. TRANSLATION DURING ANTIQUITY 57

§ 2. TRANSLATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES 57

§ 3. RENAISSANCE TRANSLATION 58

§ 4. ENLIGHTENMENT TRANSLATION (17-18th c.) 60

§ 5. TRANSLATION IN THE 19TH CENTURY 61

§ 6. TRANSLATION IN THE 20TH CENTURY 63

Chapter 2. HISTORY OF RUSSIAN TRANSLATION 64

§ 1. OLD RUSSIAN CULTURE AND TRANSLATION 64

§2. TRANSLATION IN THE 18TH CENTURY 65

§ 3. RUSSIAN TRANSLATION IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY 67

§4. TRANSLATION IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY 70

§5. TRANSLATION AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 71

§6. TRANSLATION IN THE 20TH CENTURY 72

PART III. GRAMMAR PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION 74

Chapter 1. FORMAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOURCE TEXT AND TARGET TEXT 74

Source language and target language texts differ formally due to a number of reasons of both objective and subjective character. Objective reasons are caused by the divergence in the language systems and speech models. Subjective reasons can be attributed to the speaker’s choice of a language form. 74

Chapter 2. TRANSLATING FINITE VERB FORMS 75

§1. TRANSLATING TENSE AND ASPECT FORMS 76

§2. TRANSLATING PASSIVE VOICE FORMS 77

§3. TRANSLATING THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD FORMS 79

Chapter 3. TRANSLATING NON-FINITE VERB FORMS 80

§1. TRANSLATING THE INFINITIVE 80

§2. TRANSLATING THE GERUND 82

§3. TRANSLATING THE PARTICIPLE 83

§4. TRANSLATING ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTIONS 84

Chapter 4. TRANSLATING CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS 87

§1. TYPES OF CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS 87

§2. CONSTRUCTIONS WITH CAUSAL VERBS 88

§3. CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE VERBS TO HAVE, TO GET 88

§4. CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH NON-CAUSAL VERBS 89

Chapter 5. TRANSLATING PRONOUNS 90

§1. TRANSLATING PERSONAL PRONOUNS 90

§2. TRANSLATING POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 92

§3. TRANSLATING RELATIVE PRONOUNS 92

§4. TRANSLATING THE PRONOUN ONE 93

§5. TRANSLATING THE PRONOUN КАЖДЫЙ / ВСЕ 94

§6. TRANSLATING PARTITIVE PRONOUNS SOME / ANY 94

§7. TRANSLATING DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 95

Chapter 6. TRANSLATING THE ARTICLE 96

§1. TRANSLATING THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE 96

§2. TRANSLATING THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 97

§3. TRANSLATING THE ZERO ARTICLE 98

Chapter 7. TRANSLATING ATTRIBUTIVE CLUSTERS 99

§1. FEATURES OF THE ATTRIBUTIVE PHRASE 99

§2. TRANSLATING THE ATTRIBUTIVE CLUSTER. 100

Chapter 8. SYNTACTIC CHANGES IN TRANSLATION 102

§1. COMMUNICATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN SENTENCE 102

§2. WORD ORDER CHANGE DUE TO THE FUNCTIONAL SENTENCE PERSPECTIVE 103

§3. SENTENCE PARTITIONING AND INTEGRATION 104

Chapter 9. DIFFERENCE IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN PUNCTUATION 105

§1. PRINCIPLES OF PUNCTUATION IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN 105

§2. DIFFERENCES IN COMMA USAGE 106

§3. USING THE DASH 107

§4. USING QUOTATION MARKS 108

§5. USING THE COLON AND SEMICOLON 108

§6. USING THE ELLIPSES 108

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