Краткое содержание цикла лекций №1 «Проектирование и производство цифровых сбис нанометрового масштаба»




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Краткое содержание цикла лекций № 1 «Проектирование и производство цифровых СБИС нанометрового масштаба»


  • Введение в современную микроэлектронику

  • От алгоритмов к аппаратной архитектуре СБИС

  • Функциональная верификация СБИС

  • Моделирование с помощью языков VHDL и Verilog

  • Проектирование синхронных фрагментов СБИС

  • Тактирование синхронных цепей

  • Обмен асинхронными данными

  • Проектирование на уровне вентилей и транзисторов

  • Энергетическая эффективность СБИС и удаление выделяемого тепла

  • Целостность сигналов в СБИС

  • Физический этап проектирования СБИС

  • Верификация физического этапа проектирования

  • Экономика СБИС и управление проектами

  • Прогресс в развитии КМОП технологии

  • Жизнь электронной идустрии: настоящее и будущее

Краткое содержание цикла лекций № 2 «Архитектура высокопроизводительных микропроцессоров и систем на кристалле»


  • Введение в компьютерную архитектуру и количественные принципы проектирования микропроцессоров

  • Принципы построения системы команд, формальные методы, автоматическая генерация системы команд

  • Примеры построения системы команд (CISC, RISC, Stream Processing, адаптивная)

  • Исполнение команд в конвейерном процессоре и проблемы задержек

  • Конфликты и прерывания в конвейерной архитектуре

  • Использование потенциального параллелизм на уровне команд: динамическое аппаратное и статическое программное диспетчирование исполнения команд

  • Суперскалярные (аппаратное диспетчирование) и VLIW (статическое программное диспетчирование) архитектуры микропроцессоров

  • Способы реализации параллелизма на уровне команд в современных статических и динамических архитектурах

  • Арифметические блоки в современных микропроцессорах и системах на кристалле

  • Иерархия памяти и кэш-память: Ключ к производительности и универсальности микропроцессоров

  • Основная память и поддержка механизма виртуальной памяти. Построение подсистемы памяти в современных микропроцессорах

  • Симметричные мультироцессоры с разделяемой памятью. Мультипроцессоры на кристалле и системы на кристалле

  • Мультитредность в высокопроизводительных микропроцессорах и графических машинах: возможные преимущества и затраты на их реализацию.

  • Структуры и производительность подсистем ввода-вывода

  • Параллельные вычисления. Архитектуры новейших суперкомпьютеров

Базовые справочные материалы:


  1. Hubert Kaeslin @ ETH Zurich «Digital Integrated Circuit Design: From VLSI Architectures to CMOS Fabrication», Cambridge University Press, 2008

  2. Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach (4th Ed.) by J. Hennessy and D. Patterson, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2007

Развернутое содержание цикла лекций № 1 «Проектирование и Производство Цифровых СБИС нанометрового масштаба»

Introduction to Microelectronics


1.1 Economic impact

1.2 Concepts and terminology

1.2.1 The Guinness book of records point of view

1.2.2 The marketing point of view

1.2.3 The fabrication point of view

1.2.4 The design engineer’s point of view

1.2.5 The business point of view

1.3 Design flow in digital VLSI

1.3.1 The Y-chart, a map of digital electronic systems

1.3.2 Major stages in VLSI design

1.3.3 Cell libraries

1.3.4 Electronic design automation software

1.4 Field-programmable logic

1.4.1 Configuration technologies

1.4.2 Organization of hardware resources

1.4.3 Commercial products

From Algorithms to Architectures


2.1 The goals of architecture design

2.2 The architectural antipodes

2.2.1 What makes an algorithm suitable for a dedicated VLSI architecture?

2.2.2 There is plenty of land between the architectural antipodes

2.2.3 Assemblies of general-purpose and dedicated processing units

2.2.4 Coprocessors

2.2.5 Application-specific instruction set processors

2.2.6 Configurable computing

2.2.7 Extendable instruction set processors

2.3 A transform approach to VLSI architecture design

2.3.1 There is room for remodelling in the algorithmic domain . . .

2.3.2 . . . and there is room in the architectural domain

2.3.3 Systems engineers and VLSI designers must collaborate

2.3.4 A graph-based formalism for describing processing algorithms

2.3.5 The isomorphic architecture

2.3.6 Relative merits of architectural alternatives

2.3.7 Computation cycle versus clock period

2.4 Equivalence transforms for combinational computations

2.4.1 Common assumptions

2.4.2 Iterative decomposition

2.4.3 Pipelining

2.4.4 Replication

2.4.5 Time sharing

2.4.6 Associativity transform

2.4.7 Other algebraic transforms

2.5 Options for temporary storage of data

2.5.1 Data access patterns

2.5.2 Available memory configurations and area occupation

2.5.3 Storage capacities

2.5.4 Wiring and the costs of going off-chip

2.5.5 Latency and timing

2.6 Equivalence transforms for nonrecursive computations

2.6.1 Retiming

2.6.2 Pipelining revisited

2.6.3 Systolic conversion

2.6.4 Iterative decomposition and time-sharing revisited

2.6.5 Replication revisited

2.7 Equivalence transforms for recursive computations

2.7.1 The feedback bottleneck

2.7.2 Unfolding of first-order loops

2.7.3 Higher-order loops

2.7.4 Time-variant loops

2.7.5 Nonlinear or general loops

2.7.6 Pipeline interleaving is not an equivalence transform

2.8 Generalizations of the transform approach

2.8.1 Generalization to other levels of detail

2.8.2 Bit-serial architectures

2.8.3 Distributed arithmetic

2.8.4 Generalization to other algebraic structures

2.9.2 The grand architectural alternatives from an energy point of view

2.9.3 A guide to evaluating architectural alternatives

Functional Verification


3.1 How to establish valid functional specifications

3.1.1 Formal specification

3.1.2 Rapid prototyping

3.2 Developing an adequate simulation strategy

3.2.1 What does it take to uncover a design flaw during simulation?

3.2.2 Stimulation and response checking must occur automatically

3.2.3 Exhaustive verification remains an elusive goal

3.2.4 All partial verification techniques have their pitfalls

3.2.5 Collecting test cases from multiple sources helps

3.2.6 Assertion-based verification helps

3.2.7 Separating test development from circuit design helps

3.2.8 Virtual prototypes help to generate expected responses

3.3 Reusing the same functional gauge throughout the entire design cycle

3.3.1 Alternative ways to handle stimuli and expected responses

3.3.2 Modular testbench design

3.3.3 A well-defined schedule for stimuli and responses

3.3.4 Trimming run times by skipping redundant simulation sequences

3.3.5 Abstracting to higher-level transactions on higher-level data

3.3.6 Absorbing latency variations across multiple circuit models

Modelling Hardware with VHDL


4.1 Motivation

4.1.1 Why hardware synthesis?

4.1.2 What are the alternatives to VHDL?

4.1.3 What are the origins and aspirations of the IEEE 1076 standard?

4.1.4 Why bother learning hardware description languages?

4.1.5 Agenda

4.2 Key concepts and constructs of VHDL

4.2.1 Circuit hierarchy and connectivity

4.2.2 Concurrent processes and process interaction

4.2.3 A discrete replacement for electrical signals

4.2.4 An event-based concept of time for governing simulation

4.2.5 Facilities for model parametrization

4.2.6 Concepts borrowed from programming languages

4.3 Putting VHDL to service for hardware synthesis

4.3.1 Synthesis overview

4.3.2 Data types

4.3.3 Registers, finite state machines, and other sequential subcircuits

4.3.4 RAMs, ROMs, and other macrocells

4.3.5 Circuits that must be controlled at the netlist level

4.3.6 Timing constraints

4.3.7 Limitations and caveats for synthesis

4.3.8 How to establish a register transfer-level model step by step

4.4 Putting VHDL to service for hardware simulation

4.4.1 Ingredients of digital simulation

4.4.2 Anatomy of a generic testbench

4.4.3 Adapting to a design problem at hand

4.4.4 The VITAL modelling standard IEEE 1076.4

4.8.1 Protected shared variables IEEE 1076a

4.8.2 The analog and mixed-signal extension IEEE 1076.1

4.8.3 Mathematical packages for real and complex numbers IEEE 1076.2

4.8.4 The arithmetic packages IEEE 1076.3

4.8.5 A language subset earmarked for synthesis IEEE 1076.6

4.8.6 The standard delay format (SDF) IEEE 1497

4.8.7 A handy compilation of type conversion functions

4.9 Appendix III: Examples of VHDL models

4.9.1 Combinational circuit models

4.9.2 Mealy, Moore, and Medvedev machines

4.9.3 State reduction and state encoding

4.9.4 Simulation testbenches

4.9.5 Working with VHDL tools from different vendors

The Case for Synchronous Design


5.1 Introduction

5.2 The grand alternatives for regulating state changes

5.2.1 Synchronous clocking

5.2.2 Asynchronous clocking

5.2.3 Self-timed clocking

5.3 Why a rigorous approach to clocking is essential in VLSI

5.3.1 The perils of hazards

5.3.2 The pros and cons of synchronous clocking

5.3.3 Clock-as-clock-can is not an option in VLSI

5.3.4 Fully self-timed clocking is not normally an option either

5.3.5 Hybrid approaches to system clocking

5.4 The dos and don’ts of synchronous circuit design

5.4.1 First guiding principle: Dissociate signal classes!

5.4.2 Second guiding principle: Allow circuits to settle before clocking!

5.4.3 Synchronous design rules at a more detailed level

5.7 On identifying signals

5.7.1 Signal class

5.7.2 Active level

5.7.3 Signaling waveforms

5.7.4 Three-state capability

5.7.5 Inputs, outputs, and bidirectional terminals

5.7.6 Present state vs. next state

5.7.7 Syntactical conventions

5.7.8 A note on upper- and lower-case letters in VHDL

5.7.9 A note on the portability of names across EDA platforms

Clocking of Synchronous Circuits


6.1 What is the difficulty in clock distribution?

6.1.1 Agenda

6.1.2 Timing quantities related to clock distribution

6.2 How much skew and jitter does a circuit tolerate?

6.2.1 Basics

6.2.2 Single-edge-triggered one-phase clocking

6.2.3 Dual-edge-triggered one-phase clocking

6.2.4 Symmetric level-sensitive two-phase clocking

6.2.5 Unsymmetric level-sensitive two-phase clocking

6.2.6 Single-wire level-sensitive two-phase clocking

6.2.7 Level-sensitive one-phase clocking and wave pipelining

6.3 How to keep clock skew within tight bounds

6.3.1 Clock waveforms

6.3.2 Collective clock buffers

6.3.3 Distributed clock buffer trees

6.3.4 Hybrid clock distribution networks

6.3.5 Clock skew analysis

6.4 How to achieve friendly input/output timing

6.4.1 Friendly as opposed to unfriendly I/O timing

6.4.2 Impact of clock distribution delay on I/O timing

6.4.3 Impact of PTV variations on I/O timing

6.4.4 Registered inputs and outputs

6.4.5 Adding artificial contamination delay to data inputs

6.4.6 Driving input registers from an early clock

6.4.7 Tapping a domain’s clock from the slowest component therein

6.4.8 “Zero-delay” clock distribution by way of a DLL or PLL

6.5 How to implement clock gating properly

6.5.1 Traditional feedback-type registers with enable

6.5.2 A crude and unsafe approach to clock gating

6.5.3 A simple clock gating scheme that may work under certain conditions

6.5.4 Safe clock gating schemes

Acquisition of Asynchronous Data


7.1 Motivation

7.2 The data consistency problem of vectored acquisition

7.2.1 Plain bit-parallel synchronization

7.2.2 Unit-distance coding

7.2.3 Suppression of crossover patterns

7.2.4 Handshaking

7.2.5 Partial handshaking

7.3 The data consistency problem of scalar acquisition

7.3.1 No synchronization whatsoever

7.3.2 Synchronization at multiple places

7.3.3 Synchronization at a single place

7.3.4 Synchronization from a slow clock

7.4 Metastable synchronizer behavior

7.4.1 Marginal triggering and how it becomes manifest

7.4.2 Repercussions on circuit functioning

7.4.3 A statistical model for estimating synchronizer reliability

7.4.4 Plesiochronous interfaces

7.4.5 Containment of metastable behavior

Gate- and Transistor-Level Design


8.1 CMOS logic gates

8.1.1 The MOSFET as a switch

8.1.2 The inverter

8.1.3 Simple CMOS gates

8.1.4 Composite or complex gates

8.1.5 Gates with high-impedance capabilities

8.1.6 Parity gates

8.1.7 Adder slices

8.2 CMOS bistables

8.2.1 Latches

8.2.2 Function latches

8.2.3 Single-edge-triggered flip-flops

8.2.4 The mother of all flip-flops

8.2.5 Dual-edge-triggered flip-flops

8.3 CMOS on-chip memories

8.3.1 Static RAM

8.3.2 Dynamic RAM

8.3.3 Other differences and commonalities

8.4 Electrical CMOS contraptions

8.4.1 Snapper

8.4.2 Schmitt trigger

8.4.3 Tie-off cells

8.4.4 Filler cell or fillcap

8.4.5 Level shifters and input/output buffers

8.4.6 Digitally adjustable delay lines

8.5 Pitfalls

8.5.1 Busses and three-state nodes

8.5.2 Transmission gates and other bidirectional components

8.5.3 What do we mean by safe design?

8.5.4 Microprocessor interface circuits

8.5.5 Mechanical contacts

8.7 Summary on electrical MOSFET models

8.7.1 Naming and counting conventions

8.7.2 The Sah model

8.7.3 The Shichman–Hodges model

8.7.4 The alpha-power-law model

8.7.5 Second-order effects

8.7.6 Effects not normally captured by transistor models

Energy Efficiency and Heat Removal


9.1 What does energy get dissipated for in CMOS circuits?

9.1.1 Charging and discharging of capacitive loads

9.1.2 Crossover currents

9.1.3 Resistive loads

9.1.4 Leakage currents

9.1.5 Total energy dissipation

9.1.6 CMOS voltage scaling

9.2 How to improve energy efficiency

9.2.1 General guidelines

9.2.2 How to reduce dynamic dissipation

9.2.3 How to counteract leakage

9.3 Heat flow and heat removal

9.4 Contributions to node capacitance

9.5 Unorthodox approaches

9.5.1 Subthreshold logic

9.5.2 Voltage-swing-reduction techniques

9.5.3 Adiabatic logic

Signal Integrity


10.1 Introduction

10.1.1 How does noise enter electronic circuits?

10.1.2 How does noise affect digital circuits?

10.1.3 Agenda

10.2 Crosstalk

10.3 Ground bounce and supply droop

10.3.1 Coupling mechanisms due to common series impedances

10.3.2 Where do large switching currents originate?

10.3.3 How severe is the impact of ground bounce?

10.4 How to mitigate ground bounce

10.4.1 Reduce effective series impedances

10.4.2 Separate polluters from potential victims

10.4.3 Avoid excessive switching currents

10.4.4 Safeguard noise margins

10.5 Conclusions

10.6 Derivation of second-order approximation

Physical Design


11.1 Agenda

11.2 Conducting layers and their characteristics

11.2.1 Geometric properties and layout rules

11.2.2 Electrical properties

11.2.3 Connecting between layers

11.2.4 Typical roles of conducting layers

11.3 Cell-based back-end design

11.3.1 Floorplanning

11.3.2 Identify major building blocks and clock domains

11.3.3 Establish a pin budget

11.3.4 Find a relative arrangement of all major building blocks

11.3.5 Plan power, clock, and signal distribution

11.3.6 Place and route (P&R)

11.3.7 Chip assembly

11.4 Packaging

11.4.1 Wafer sorting

11.4.2 Wafer testing

11.4.3 Backgrinding and singulation

11.4.4 Encapsulation

11.4.5 Final testing and binning

11.4.6 Bonding diagram and bonding rules

11.4.7 Advanced packaging techniques

11.4.8 Selecting a packaging technique

11.5 Layout at the detail level

11.5.1 Objectives of manual layout design

11.5.2 Layout design is no WYSIWYG business

11.5.3 Standard cell layout

11.5.4 Sea-of-gates macro layout

11.5.5 SRAM cell layout

11.5.6 Lithography-friendly layouts help improve fabrication yield

11.5.7 The mesh, a highly efficient and popular layout arrangement

11.6 Preventing electrical overstress

11.6.1 Electromigration

11.6.2 Electrostatic discharge

11.6.3 Latch-up

11.8 Geometric quantities advertized in VLSI

11.9 On coding diffusion areas in layout drawings

11.10 Sheet resistance

Design Verification


12.1 Uncovering timing problems

12.1.1 What does simulation tell us about timing problems?

12.1.2 How does timing verification help?

12.2 How accurate are timing data?

12.2.1 Cell delays

12.2.2 Interconnect delays and layout parasitics

12.2.3 Making realistic assumptions is the point

12.3 More static verification techniques

12.3.1 Electrical rule check

12.3.2 Code inspection

12.4 Post-layout design verification

12.4.1 Design rule check

12.4.2 Manufacturability analysis

12.4.3 Layout extraction

12.4.4 Layout versus schematic

12.4.5 Equivalence checking

12.4.6 Post-layout timing verification

12.4.7 Power grid analysis

12.4.8 Signal integrity analysis

12.4.9 Post-layout simulations

12.4.10 The overall picture

12.7 Cell and library characterization

12.8 Equivalent circuits for interconnect modelling

VLSI Economics and Project Management


13.1 Agenda

13.2 Models of industrial cooperation

13.2.1 Systems assembled from standard parts exclusively

13.2.2 Systems built around program-controlled processors

13.2.3 Systems designed on the basis of field-programmable logic

13.2.4 Systems designed on the basis of semi-custom ASICs

13.2.5 Systems designed on the basis of full-custom ASICs

13.3 Interfacing within the ASIC industry

13.3.1 Handoff points for IC design data

13.3.2 Scopes of IC manufacturing services

13.4 Virtual components

13.4.1 Copyright protection vs. customer information

13.4.2 Design reuse demands better quality and more thorough verification

13.4.3 Many existing virtual components need to be reworked

13.4.4 Virtual components require follow-up services

13.4.5 Indemnification provisions

13.4.6 Deliverables of a comprehensive VC package

13.4.7 Business models

13.5 The costs of integrated circuits

13.5.1 The impact of circuit size

13.5.2 The impact of the fabrication process

13.5.3 The impact of volume

13.5.4 The impact of configurability

13.5.5 Digest

13.6 Fabrication avenues for small quantities

13.6.1 Multi-project wafers

13.6.2 Multi-layer reticles

13.6.3 Electron beam lithography

13.6.4 Laser programming

13.6.5 Hardwired FPGAs and structured ASICs

13.6.6 Cost trading

13.7 The market side

13.7.1 Ingredients of commercial success

13.7.2 Commercialization stages and market priorities

13.7.3 Service versus product

13.7.4 Product grading

13.8 Making a choice

13.8.1 ASICs yes or no?

13.8.2 Which implementation technique should one adopt?

13.8.3 What if nothing is known for sure?

13.8.4 Can system houses afford to ignore microelectronics?

13.9 Keys to successful VLSI design

13.9.1 Project definition and marketing

13.9.2 Technical management

13.9.3 Engineering

13.9.4 Verification

13.9.5 Myths

13.10 Appendix: Doing business in microelectronics

13.10.1 Checklists for evaluating business partners and design kits

13.10.2 Virtual component providers

13.10.3 Selected low-volume providers

13.10.4 Cost estimation helps

A Primer on CMOS Technology


14.1 The essence of MOS device physics

14.1.1 Energy bands and electrical conduction

14.1.2 Doping of semiconductor materials

14.1.3 Junctions, contacts, and diodes

14.1.4 MOSFETs

14.2 Basic CMOS fabrication flow

14.2.1 Key characteristics of CMOS technology

14.2.2 Front-end-of-line fabrication steps

14.2.3 Back-end-of-line fabrication steps

14.2.4 Process monitoring

14.2.5 Photolithography

14.3 Variations on the theme

14.3.1 Copper has replaced aluminum as interconnect material

14.3.2 Low-permittivity interlevel dielectrics are replacing silicon dioxide

14.3.3 High-permittivity gate dielectrics to replace silicon dioxide

14.3.4 Strained silicon and SiGe technology

14.3.5 Metal gates bound to come back

14.3.6 Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology

Outlook


15.1 Evolution paths for CMOS technology

15.1.1 Classic device scaling

15.1.2 The search for new device topologies

15.1.3 Vertical integration

15.1.4 The search for better semiconductor materials

15.2 Is there life after CMOS?

15.2.1 Non-CMOS data storage

15.2.2 Non-CMOS data processing

15.3 Technology push

15.3.1 The so-called industry “laws” and the forces behind them

15.3.2 Industrial roadmaps

15.4 Market pull

15.5 Evolution paths for design methodology

15.5.1 The productivity problem

15.5.2 Fresh approaches to architecture design

15.6 Six grand challenges

15.7 Non-semiconductor storage technologies for comparison

Развернутое содержание цикла лекций № 2 «Архитектура высокопроизводительных микропроцессоров и систем на кристалле»


  1. Introduction to Computer Architecture and Quantitative Principles of Design.

    1. Defining Performance of computer system

    2. Relating Metrics: how to measure

    3. MIPS, MFLOPs, throughput, reaction

    4. Choosing Programs to Evaluate Performance, SPEC Benchmarks

    5. Calculation of Total Execution Time

    6. Amdahl’s law to estimate improvement in performance

    7. Comparing & Summarizing Performance of computer system




  1. Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Principles, formal approaches, automatic ISA generation

    1. RISC vs CISC – comparison of ISA

    2. Operations & Operands of the Computer hardware

    3. Representing Instructions in the Computer

    4. Logical and Arithmetic Operations

    5. Control Instructions

    6. Supporting Procedure Calls

    7. Load and Store operations

    8. MIPS, IA-32 and ARM Addressing




  1. Instruction Set Examples (CISC, RISC, Stream Processing)

    1. MIPS instructions

    2. IA-32 Instructions

    3. ARM Instructions

    4. DSP Instructions

    5. GPU instructions




  1. Pipelined Instruction Execution and latency problems.

    1. An Overview of Pipelining

    2. Basic 3-stage and 5-stage pipelines

    3. SystemC and HDL description of pipeline

    4. The MIPS, ARM Cortex and Pentium 4 Pipelines




  1. Pipeline Hazards and Exceptions

    1. A Pipelined Datapath, data hazards

    2. A Pipelined Control, control hazards

    3. Branch prediction techniques

    4. Software and hardware tricks to overcome pipeline hazards

    5. Exception implementation in pipelined architecture




  1. Instruction Level Parallelism: Dynamic Hardware and Static Software Scheduling

    1. Sources of parallelism in the code

    2. Loops and parallel fragments

    3. In-order and out-of-order execution

    4. Multiple parallel pipelines of execution units




  1. Superscalar (hardware-based) and VLIW (software-based) Architectures.

    1. Superscalar and VLIW architectures

    2. Tomasulo algorithm and hardware for hardware scheduling in superscalars

    3. Software-based scheduling of execution in VLIW machines

    4. MIPS 10000 superscalar CPU example

    5. Intel Itanium 2 VLIW machine example




  1. Instruction Level Parallelism: Static Compiler and Dynamic Hardware Scheduling

    1. Loop unrolling to extract parallelism using compiler

    2. Speculative execution over branch prediction

    3. Static (compiler-based) and dynamic speculative execution

    4. Hardware support for speculative execution in superscalars and VLIW machines




  1. Arithmetic execution units in modern CPU and SoC

    1. Signed/Unsigned Numbers

    2. Arithmetic Operations

    3. Floating-Point Arithmetic and hardware structure

    4. FP units in the IA-32 machines

    5. FP Coprocessors in MIPS and ARM




  1. Memory Hierarchy and Cache Memory: The key to performance and versatility.

    1. Introduction to memory subsystem in modern CPU and SoC

    2. Caches (direct mapped, fully associative and set-associative)

    3. Cache design in different types of processing cores (CPU, DSP, GPU)

    4. Measuring and improving cache performance

    5. System performance impact with efficient cache architecture




  1. Main Memory and Virtual Memory Support. Memory subsystem implementation.

    1. Virtual Memory concept and required additional hardware to support

    2. A Common Framework for Memory Hierarchy: caches and virtual memory combined

    3. Modern ARM and MIPS cores memory hierarchy in Systems-On-Chip

    4. The Pentium 4 and AMD Athlon Memory Hierarchy




  1. Symmetric Shared Memory Multiprocessors. Chip multiprocessors (CMP) and Systems-on-Chip

    1. Programming multiprocessors (MP)

    2. Single bus multiprocessors, multi-core CMP

    3. System-on-Chips with homogeneous cores

    4. High-performance and low-power designs of multi-core CMP




  1. Multithreading in high-performance CPU and GPUs: Benefits and Price.

    1. Multithreading in superscalars: improving the load of execution units

    2. Multithreading implementation in Pentium and Xeon

    3. Multithreading in GPU to compensate memory access latency

    4. Multithreading versus CPU core replication




  1. Structure and Performance of Input/Output Sub-System

    1. Disk storage and non-volatile memory storage devices. RAID systems

    2. Buses and Other Connections between Processors, Memory, and I/O Devices

    3. Networks and USB interfaces

    4. Interfacing I/O Devices to the Processor, Memory, and OS on SoC

    5. I/O Performance Measurement

    6. Designing an I/O System for embedded computers and SoC

    7. Real stuff: Digital camera




  1. Parallel Computing. Modern supercomputer architectures.

    1. Clusters

    2. Network connected MP

    3. Network topologies

    4. Real stuff: Google cluster

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